Historical Plaques of
Stormont, Dundas & Glengarry

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The next 2 plaques were sent in by Don McLatchie

PLAQUE #1

Location: The Lutheran Church, Riverside, Ontario

THE REV. JOHANN SAMUEL SCHWERDTFEGER

1734–1803

The first Lutheran minister to settle in this province, Schwerdtfeger was born in Burgbernheim, Bavaria, and studied theology at the University of Erlangen. Emigrating to America in 1753, he served as pastor of congregations in Pennsylvania, Maryland and New York. Much persecuted for his allegiance to the Crown during the American Revolution, Schwerdtfeger moved to Canada in 1791. He settled here in Williamsburg Township and became pastor of a congregation of German Loyalists, which had been established in 1784, and by 1790 had constructed the first Lutheran church in what is now Ontario. Its site now lies beneath Lake St. Lawrence. Within a few years he had organized Lutheran congregations in neighbouring townships. He died in 1803 and was buried in the old church cemetery.

Erected by the Archaeological and Historic Sites Board,
Archives of Ontario

PLAQUE #2

Location: The Lutheran Church, Riverside, Ontario

THAT YE MIGHT TELL IT TO THE
GENERATIONS FOLLOWING


TO COMMEMORATE THE
LOYALTY, FAITH, COURAGE AND
SACRIFICES OF THE PIONEER
LUTHERAN PASTORS, THE
REV. SAMUEL SCHWERDTFEGER
AND THE REV. HERMAN HAYUNGA,
AND THE FAITHFUL CHRISTIAN
MEN AND WOMEN, WHO ESTABLISHED
THIS EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN
CHURCH, A GRATEFUL MEMBERSHIP
OF THE EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN
SYNOD OF CANADA HAS ERECTED
THIS MONUMENT.
THE UNVEILING TOOK PLACE
JUNE 10TH 1934. MARKING THE
ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTIETH
ANNIVERSARY OF THE FOUNDING
OF THIS CONGREGATION BY A
COMPANY OF LUTHERAN UNITED
EMPIRE LOYALISTS.

The next 6 plaques were sent in by Greg & Pat McCabe

PLAQUE #3

Location: Village of Crysler

Col. John Crysler
1768 - 1852
Col. Crysler came to Canada in 1784 as a U.E.Loyalist. He served in the Ottawa Legislature from 1808 until 1824. He was a member of St. John's Anglican Church, Chrysler, and donated land for the three churches in the Village.
He is buried in St. John's Anglican Cemetery, Crysler.

PLAQUE #4

Location: Village of Crysler

The Anglican Church of Canada Diocese of Ottawa Church of St. John, Crysler Parish. Founded 1817 First Church 1864 - 1889 Second Church 1889 - 1993


PLAQUE #5

Location: Dundela

JOHN MCINTOSH

1777 - 1846

McIntosh's parents emigrated from Inverness, Scotland to the Mohawk Valley, N.Y., and John moved to Upper Canada in 1796. In 1811 he aquired a farm near this site, and while clearing the land of second growth discovered several apple seedlings. He transplanted these, and one bore the superior fruit which became famous as the McIntosh Red apple. John's son Allan established a nursery and promoted this new species extensively. It was widely acclaimed in Ontario and the northern United States, and was introduced into British Columbia about 1910. It's popularity in North America and propagation in many lands attest the initiative and industry of John McIntosh and his descendants.

Erected by the Ontario Archealogical and Historical Site Board

PLAQUE #6

Location: SE corner, intersection of Conc.6
and Cty. Rd.18 in Cornwall Twp.,

SIMON FRASER

1776 - 1862

This famous fur trader and explorer, son of a Loyalist officer, was born in what is now Vermont and came to Canada in 1784. He entered the fur trade with the North West Company in 1792 and in 1805 was placed in charge of operating west of the Rocky Mountains. In 1808, while searching for a water route to the Pacific, Fraser descended the turbulent river which bears his name. The skill and daring required to traverse those 500 miles with their violent whirlpools and rapids makes this feat one of the most outstanding in the exploration of Canada. Retiring from the Company in 1817, he settled on this property where he farmed and operated mills.

Erected by the Archealogical and Historic Sites Board,
Department of Public Records and Archives of Ontario

PLAQUE #7

Location: Located within the confines of the Upper Canada Migratory Bird Sanctuary, in Osnabruck Twp.

HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN CATTLE IN ONTARIO
In 1881, Michael Cook, who operated a prosperous 200 acre farm here, imported the first Holstein Friesian cattle into Ontario. His action was part of a progressive movement amongst farmers to find a productive breed of cattle capable of supporting the province's rapidly developing dairy industry which increasingly focused on cheese production. Following his initial importation of two bulls and ten cows, Cook continued to import Holstein cattle from the United States and The Netherlands and to distribute these cattle throughout the province. They quickly established a high reputation among Ontario farmers and by 1886 their popularity in the industry was assured when the Dairymen's Association of eastern Ontario recognized the Holstein as the leading milk producing breed.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Recreation

PLAQUE #8

Location: Located within the confines of the Upper Canada Migratory Bird Sanctuary,
in Osnabruck Twp.

HOLSTEIN CENTENNIAL

1881 - 1981

Commemorating 100 Years of Holstein Breeding in Canada. Michael P. Cook was the First To Import Holstein Friesian Cattle Into Ontario In 1881. First Importation 2 Bulls 10 Cows To Aultsville, Ontario, Stormont County. Cattle From This Shipment Founded The Base Of The Holstein Breed Today. Holsteins The Most Popular Dairy Breed. Michael P. Cook Was The First President Elected By The Holstein - Friesian Association Of Canada. Canadian Membership 14,000 In 1981 125,000 Registrations In 1980

Presented By Ontario Branch Of The Holstein - Friesian Association Of Canada, And Stormont County Holstein Club

The next 5 plaques were sent in by Edward Kipp

PLAQUE #9

Location: St. Andrews

ST. ANDREWS CHURCH
This building, the oldest remaining stone structure in the province erected as a church, was completed about 1801. Many of the pioneer settlers in this area were Roman Catholic Highlanders, ministered to by Rev. Roderick Macdonell, the missionary at St. Regis. The church was built under his leadership, with the assistance of a prominent local settler, "Spanish" John Macdonell, who obtained contributions for its construction from members of the North West Company and other fur traders. It was used as a hospital during the War of 1812, and served its congregation until replaced by the adjacent church in 1860. Simon Fraser and Sandfield Macdonald are buried in the graveyard opposite

PLAQUE #10

Location: St. Andrews

ST. ANDREWS PARISH

OLD BURYING GROUND 1784

In this peaceful place of rest lie the pioneer settlers of this parish among whom known to [fae] are John Sandfield Macdonald, first Prime Minister of this Province and Simon Fraser the explorer of the Fraser River. As a tribute to their memory this burial ground was restored by the Provincial Government of Ontario in the year 1938

Monument #11

Location: St. Andrews

Simon Fraser
In memory of Simon Fraser explorer Born 1776 Died 1862. While in the employ of the North West Co. he conducted important exploration and pioneer work principally in the area known as British Columbia which he helped to secure for the British. He led the first exploring expedition to descend the great river which bears his name reaching the Gulf of Georgia on July 2nd, 1808.

This monument was erected in 1921 by the Hudson's Bay Co. over the grave where he & his wife were buried.

PLAQUE #12

Location: Ingleside

Ault Park
To the people of the Township of Cornwall in loving memory of my parentsv Simon William Ault and Caroline Brownell Ault who spent long and useful lives in this immediate vicinity in Mille Roches, Moulinette. This park is given May 23 A.D. 1914. Levi Addison Ault Cincinnati, Ohio.

With the cooperation of the Ault family this park has been provided to replace the original park formerly located on the westerly end of Shere Island on land now flooded. The Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario 1959

Monument #13

Location: Dundela

The original McIntosh Red Apple tree stood about 20 rods North of this spot. It was one of a number of seedlings taken from the border of the clearings and transplanted by John McIntosh in the year 1796.
Erected by popular subscription 1912.

The next plaque was sent in by Pat and Greg McCabe

Plaque #14

Location: In the Town of Williamsburg

DR. MAHLON W. LOCKE 1880 - 1942
Born in nearby Matilda township, Locke studied medicine at Queen's University in Scotland. In 1908 he opened his medical office in this house. Interested in arthritis, which he believed was caused principally by fallen arches, he treated many arthritics in the following years by manual manipulation of their feet. Large numbers of his patients claimed to be cured or relieved by this method and his reputation spread across North America and overseas. From 1928 onwards thousands of the sick visited Dr. Locke in Williamsburg where he reportedly treated hundreds of persons daily. During the depression years this enormous influx brought significant prosperity to the region.

Erected by the Archealogical and Historic Sites Board,
Department of Public Records and Archives of Ontario

The next 5 plaques were sent in by Sandra R. Horwat

Plaque #15

Location: in front of Gordon Free Church (erected 1864)
County Rd #20 (St. Elmo) near Maxville

THE REV. CHARLES W. GORDON 1860-1937
Born at Indian Lands (St. Elmo), Gordon was ordained a Presbyterian minister in 1890. He served as a missionary in the North West Territories until 1893 and the following year was called to St. Stephens in Winnipeg. A chaplain during the War of 1914-18, he was Moderator of the Presbyterian Church in Canada 1921-22. Under the pen name of Ralph Connor, Gordon became one of Canada's leading authors and wrote such books as 'The Man from Glengarry', 'The Sky Pilot' and 'Glengarry School Days'. The themes of many of his novels were drawn from his missionary experiences and boyhood memories of Glengarry.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

Plaque #16

(A plaque affixed to the ruins)

Location: St. Raphael's Church Ruins, in the Village of St. Raphael, on Lancaster Concession 4, one mile west of County Road 34


HISTORIC ST. RAPHAEL'S CHURCH
Built in 1821 - Gutted by fire in 1970 - Stabalized and landscaped in 1974 by the Ontario Heritage Foundation with the cooperation of the Township of Charlottensburgh and the Parish of St. Raphael's.

Dedicated as a Historical Landmark for the benefit of Ontario.

PLAQUE #17

Location: Same as above

THE PARISH OF ST. RAPHAEL
A mission of the Roman Catholic Highlanders of the Raisin River settlement was begun in 1786 by the Reverend Alexander Macdonell (Scotus) and later a small frame church, called the "Blue Chapel" was built. St. Raphael's Parish was officially recognized in 1802. The existing stone church, a fine example of Canadian neo-classical design, was begun in 1821 by the Most Reverend Alexander Macdonell, who had been appointed to St. Raphael's in 1804, made Vicar General of Upper Canada in 1807, and consecrated Bishop of Rhesina in 1820. From 1807 to 1826, when Macdonell became Bishop of Regiopolis (Kingston), St. Raphael's was the administrative centre of the Church of Upper Canada.

Erected by Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #18

(on memorial cairn in front of ruins)

Location: Same as above


ST. RAPHAEL'S RUINS
LES RUINES DE L'ÉGLISE ST. RAPHAEL
The extraordinary ruins of this church recall the early history of Roman Catholicism in Upper Canada. Begun in 1815, St. Raphael's Church originally served as the centre of the colony's largest and most important parish and the administrative headquarters of the first Roman Catholic Bishop, Alexander Macdonell. Situated in the heart of the historic Highland Settlement, the parish was the cradle of catholicism in Ontario. The ruins left standing after the fire of 1970 serve as a testament of Bishop Macdonell's determined efforts to forward the interests of his faith.

Construite en 1817-1819 par des artisans montréalais pour John Macdonell et son épouse métisse, Magdeleine Poitras, cette demeure était l'une des plus belles érigées dans la région par d'anciens partenaires de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest. Élégante adaptation du style palladien, elle s'élevait au milieu d'un vaste domaine en exploitation, près de la rivière et de l'entreprise de transit de Macdonell. La famille l'avait baptisée ‹‹Poplar Villa››. Ses impressionnants murs de pierre et son intérieur raffiné témoignaient de rang élevé que tenait Macdonell dans la société commerciale et politique de l'Outaouais.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #19

Location: Same as above

THE GLENGARRY EMIGRATION OF 1786
Early in September 1786, a group of some 500 Scottish Highlanders, the majority of whom were Macdonells, arrived at Quebec. They were led by their parish priest from Knoydart, Glengarry, the Reverend Alexander Macdonell (Scotus). Forced to emigrate because of their depressed economic conditions of the Highlands, they had been encouraged to come to Canada and settle among their fellow countrymen in what is now Glengarry County. Despite initial hardships, most of these Scottish pioneers settled successfully in this region, where their loyalty and military prowess were frequently demonstrated. Father Macdonell founded the parish of St. Rapael, one of the province's earliest Roman Catholic congregations.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

The next plaque was sent in by Maureen McKillican

PLAQUE #20

Location: In the community of St. Elmo, north of Maxville on County Rd. 20

To view a photo of the Glengarry Congregational Church 1837 click the Thumbnail

GLENGARRY
CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH 1837
This Log Structure completed in 1837, is the oldest remaining chapel in Ontario built by the Congregationalists. It's first minister, the Reverend William McKillican (1776-1849), emmigrated to Canada from Scotland in 1816, and settled in Glengarry the following year. Here, in 1823, he established one of the earliest congregations of his denomination in Upper Canada and ministered througout the surrounding region, he was succeeded by his son John (1824-1911) who first preached in this chapel in 1850, and was ordained here the following year. During the next 60 years local attendance diminished, and by about 1912 the building fell into disuse. In 1920 it was sold to the near by Gordon Presbyterian Church.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #21

Location: In L'ameurieux Park at the foot of Augustus St., Cornwall

THE FOUNDING OF CORNWALL
In June 1784 disbanded Loyalist soldiers and their families settled at New Johnstown, the site of present-day Cornwall. Initially called Pointe Maligne, the area had been visited by native traders and French missionaries and explorers during the 17th and early 18th centuries. In 1794 Cornwall was designated a judicial and adiminstrative centre for the Eastern District and by 1805 contained a court house, a schoolhouse, two churches and numerous dwellings. The community grew gradually and was incorporated in 1834. The construction of the Cornwall Canal in 1834-42 accelerated its development. With the erection of mills and large factories along the canal's course, Cornwall emerged by the end of the century as a signifcant industrial centre in Eastern Ontario and as a distinctive bicultural community.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Citizenship and Culture

PLAQUE #22

Location: On the grounds of Glen-Stor-Dun Lodge, 1900 Montreal Rd., Cornwall

CAPTAIN SAMUEL ANDERSON

1736 - 1836
This property formed part of the extensive lands granted to Capt. Samuel Anderson, U.E.L., one of the first persons to settle on the site of Cornwall. Born in New England of Irish parents, he served with the British forces during the Seven Years War. At the outbreak of the American Revolution Anderson was imprisoned by the rebels after he had refused a commission in the Continental Army. He escaped in 1776 and was appointed a captain in the 1st Battalion K.R.R.N.Y. He became a justice of the peace for this area in 1785 and later served as the first judge of the Eastern District.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #23

Location: On the grounds of Trinity Church, 105 Second St. W., Cornwall

THE REV. JOHN STRACHAN IN CORNWALL
This pioneer clergyman, legislator and teacher was born in 1778 in Aberdeen, Scotland, and in 1799 came to Kingston as a tutor. In 1803, after entering the Church of England, he was ordained and appointed missionary at Cornwall. Here, in 1804-05, he built its first Anglican church. Shortly afterwards he opended a boys' school which became renowned for its high academic standards and eminent graduates. In 1812 he became Rector of York (Toronto), and subsequently a member of the province's executive and legislative councils. Appointed Upper Canada's first Anglican bishop in 1839, he died in 1867 and this church, commenced in 1869 is dedicated to his memory.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #24

Location: In front of the Armouries, 515 Fourth St. E., Cornwall

THE GLENGARRY FENCIBLES
The regiment of Glengarry Light Infantry Fencibles was raised in 1811-12 largely from among the Highland settlers of this region, many of whom had served previously in Europe with the Glengarry (British Highland) Fencibles. The Canadian corps was recruited through the efforts of Major George Richard John Macdonell ("Red George") assisted by the Rev. Alexander Macdonell (later Upper Canada's first Roman Catholic Bishop) who served as its chaplain. The regiment was taken on the regular British army establishment in 1812, and disbandoned at Kingston in 1816. Detachments of the Fencibles distinguished themselves in many hard fought engagements including: Salmon River, 1812; Ogdensburg, 1813; Lundy's Lane, Fort Erie, and Mackinac, 1814.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #25

Location: Pitt and Water St., Cornwall

DISTRICT COURT-HOUSE AND GAOL 1833
The central portion of this building was completed in 1833 and served as the court-house and gaol of the Eastern District. First named Luneburgh, this district was established in 1788 by proclamation. In 1794 an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada authorized the magistrates of the District Court of Quarter Sessions to erect a court-house and gaol at Cornwall. A two-storey frame structure was completed on this site about 1802 and until destroyed by fire in 1826, served as the centre of local judicial and municipal administration. It was replaced by the main block of the present building, which is one of the province's oldest remaining public structures.

Erected by the Archaeological and Historic Sites Board,
Department of Public Records and Archives of Ontario

PLAQUE #26

Location: In Lakeside Park near the road on H-way #2 at Avamore Rd.,
just west of Cornwall

LOST VILLAGES OF THE ST. LAWRENCE
Construction of the St. Lawrence Seaway required the flooding of 20,000 acres along the Canadian shoreline between Iroquois and Cornwall. Some of these lands had been settled by loyalists in the 1780s. Between 1955 and 1957, 6,500 residents were relocated many of them to the new communities of Ingleside and Long Sault. Work crews moved buildings to new sites and re-routed highways and railway tracks. Iroquois and part of Morrisburg were rebuilt on higher ground. On "Inundation Day", July 1, 1958, the rising waters of Lake St. Lawrence slowly submerged the villages of Aultsville, Farran's Point, Woodlands, Dickinson's Landing, Wales, Moulinette, Mille Roches, and a farming community on Sheek's Island.

Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Recreation

PLAQUE #27

Location: At the entrance to the former farm, now (picturesque) Battlefield Park,
H-way #2, east of Morrisburg

It's been almost 200 years since the guns fell silent at the Battle of Crysler's Farm, to view a photo of what the battlefield looks like today click HERE

BATTLE OF CRYSLER'S FARM 1813
In November, 1813, an American army of some 8000 men, commanded by Major-General James Wilkinson, moved down the St. Lawrence en route to Montreal. Wilkinson was followed and harassed by a British corps of observation consisting of about 800 regulars, militia and Indians commanded by Lieut.-Col. Joseph Morrison. On November 11, Morrison's force, established in a defensive position on John Crysler's farm, was attacked by a contingent of the American army numbering about 4000 men commanded by Brigadier-General J.P. Boyd. The hard fought engagement ended with the Americans withdrawal from the battlefield. This reverse combined with the defeat of another invading army at Chateauquay on October 26 saved Canada from conquest in 1813.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #28

Location: Holy Trinity Church, Riverside Heights, H-way #2 east of Morrisburg

SIR JAMES PLINY WHITNEY

1843 - 1914

Born in Williamsburg and educated at the Cornwall Grammar School, Whitney was called to the Bar in 1876. He was elected to the legislative assembly as Conservative member for Dundas in 1888. A noted orator, he was leader of the opposition 1896-1905. In the latter year the Liberal government headed by the Hon. G.W. Ross was defeated and Whitney became the sixth prime minister of Ontario. He held that post 1905-14 and his administration was noted for its introduction of extensive legislation relating to agriculture, labour, education and public utilities. Whitney received his knighthood in 1908.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #29

Location: At the Royal Canadian Legion, County Road 34, Lancaster

CLAUDE J.P. NUNNEY, V.C.

1892 - 1918

Born in Ireland, Nunney was brought up in Lancaster Township, Glengarry. He enlisted in the 38th Battalion, C.E.F. in 1915 and in 1916 was sent to France where he won the Military Medal and Distinguished Conduct Medal. On September 1, 1918, his unit was heavily counter-attacked near Vis-en-Artois. On his own initiative Private Nunney went through the German barrage to the forward posts, where, by his fearless example, he encouraged his companions to repulse the enemy. During the Canadain attack on the following day, he was continually in the forefront, and displayed throughout the highest degree of valour. Severely wounded, he died on September 18, and was awarded the Victoria Cross posthumously.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #30

Location: on Kings Rd., St. Raphaels

JOHN SANDFIELD MACDONALD

1812 - 1872

St. Raphael is the birthplace of John Sandfield Macdonald, Prime Minister of the Province of Canada 1862-64, and first Premier of Ontario 1867-71. First elected to represent Glengarry in the legislature of Canada in 1841, he became one of the leaders of the Reform party and served in several ministries prior to Confederation in 1867. Always independent in his political thinking, he at first opposed the federation of the provinces. Later he co-operated with Sir John A. Macdonald, chief architect of Confederation, at whose request he formed a coalition ministry in Ontario.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #31

Location: On the grounds of his former home “Fairfield” which now houses Juvenat De Sacre-Coeur,
on H-way #2 at County Road 27 just west of Summerstown

"CARIBOO" CAMERON 1820 -1888
Born in this township, John Angus "Cariboo" Cameron married Margaret Sophia Groves in 1860. Accompanied by his wife and daughter, he went to British Columbia in 1862 to prospect in the Cariboo gold fields. That year at Williams Creek he struck a rich gold deposit. While there his wife died of typhoid fever and, in order to fulfil her dying wish to be buried at home, he transported her body in an alcohol-filled coffin some 8,600 miles by sea via the Isthmus of Panama to Cornwall. She is buried in the nearby Salem Church cemetery. Cameron built this house, "Fairfield", in 1865, and in 1886 returned to the B.C. gold fields. He is buried near Barkerville, B.C.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #32

Location: At the site of the former mill, John St., Williamstown

SIR JOHN JOHNSON’S MILLS
Son of the celebrated Indian superintendent Sir William Johnson, Sir John was born in 1742 in New York’s Mohawk Valley. During the American Revolution his Loyalist sympathies brought him to Canada where he organized the King’s Royal Regiment of New York. After the Revolution he received extensive Crown-land grants in Glengarry County and elsewhere. He built a grist-mill and sawmill here on the Raisin River about 1790 and, on the bank opposite a manor-house. Appointed to the Legislative Council of Lower Canada in 1796, he died near Montreal in 1830.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #33

Location: At St. Andrew’s Presbyterian Church, Church St. W., Williamstown

THE MacMILLAN EMIGRATION 1802
In September, 1802, over 400 Highland emigrants, including more than 100 MacMillans, arrived at Montreal under the leadership of Archibald McMillan (Murlaggan) on board the vessels “Friends”, “Helen” and “Jane”. He planned to form a settlement in Argenteuil County, Lower Canada, but while negotiations were proceeding, many of his followers moved to Glengarry, Upper Canada, where relatives and friends were already established. In 1804 Murlaggan’s cousin, Alan McMillan (Glenpean), secured land in the wilderness township of Finch, Stormont County, where with some forty MacMillans, Camerons and others he laid the foundation of its settlement. Murlaggan acquired land in Argenteuil in 1807-08 where he settled shortly thereafter. Glenpean died in 1823 and is buried here.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #34

Location: At St. Andrew’s Presbyterian Church, Church St. W., Williamstown

ST. ANDREW’S CHURCH

1812
Following the organization of a Pesbyterian congregation in 1787, a log church was erected here and replaced in 1806 by a stone structure. The present church was begun in 1812. Its bell was presented in 1806 by Sir Alexander Mackenzie, the great western explorer, and its communion service in 1820 by friends in Scotland. The first allotment of pews was made by lot on February 23, 1818, after special places had been reserved for the minister’s family, Mackenzie and other partners of the North West Company. Between 1787 and 1958 the congregation was served by only six ministers.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #35

Location: At St. Andrew’s Presbyterian Church, Church St. W., Williamstown

DUNCAN CAMERON
Born in Scotland about 1764 he settled with his parents in Schenectady, New York. His father served with a Loyalist regiment during the American Revolution, following which the family moved to Glengarry. In 1784 Duncan entered the North West Company where, as manager of its Red River Department, he endeavoured to persuade Lord Selkirk’s settlers to abandon their lands. When Selkirk’s forces attacked Fort Gilbraltar in 1816, Cameron was captured and taken to England. Released and compensated for false arrest, he returned to Williamstown in 1820. He died in 1848 and is buried here.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #36

Location: On the grounds of the Nor’Westers & Loyalist Museum, John St., Williamstown

THE NORTH WEST COMPANY
Some fifteen years after the British conquest of New France, the Montreal-based fur trade was revived, primarily by Scots. Competition among the individuals and small partnerships led to larger groupings, culminating in 1779 in the formation of the first “North West Company”. Reconstituted, 1783-4, the organization became a vital factor in the economy and exploration of this nation. Many of its partners and employees were drawn from among the Highland settlers of Glengarry County. Notable figures in the Company included: Benjamin and Joseph Frobisher, Simon McTavish, William McGillivray, Simon Fraser, Sir Alexander Mackenzie and David Thompson. Ruinous competition between the North West and Hudson’s Bay Companies finally compelled them to unite in 1821.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #37

Location: John St. W., Williamstown

WILLIAMSTOWN FAIR
Ontario’s oldest continually operated agricultural fair received its patent on March 29, 1808, from Francis Gore, Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada. It is probable that at first, the local farmers simply gathered on the village common or streets. However on June 25, 1814, Sir John Johnson, the founder of Williamstown, granted twelve acres for the express purpose of holding a fair and it has been held here annually ever since. Through the years, this fair, like many others in the province, has raised our standards of agriculture by providing a centre for the display of superior farm products and livestock.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #38

Location: At the house, County Road 17, 5kms west of Williamstown

FRASERFIELD
Begun about 1812 this house, one of the finest country residences of the day, was the home of the Honourable Alexander Fraser, Quartermaster of the Canadian Fencibles during the War of 1812. Fraser became Colonel of the 1st Regiment, Glengarry Militia, in 1822 and served under Sir John Colborne in Lower Canada during the Rebellion of 1837-38. Elected in 1828 to the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada, he was appointed in 1839 to the Legislative Council. From 1842-49 he was the first Warden of the Eastern District, now the counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #39

Location: On the grounds of l'Église de la Nativité de la Bienheureuse Vierge Marie,
300 Montreal Rd., Cornwall

THE FRENCH PRESENCE IN CORNWALL
A vital cultural force in Eastern Ontario, the Franco-Ontarian community in Cornwall was established during the late 1870s when large-scale industrial expansion led to an influx of workers and tradesmen from Quebec. By 1881 French-speaking residents comprised the largest single cultural group in the town. Supported by a number of religious and scholastic institutions, including l’église de la Nativité de la Bienheureuse Vierge Marie, the Francophone community grew steadily in the decades that followed. Increasingly it asserted its cultural distinctiveness, paying particular attention to language preservation and French education. Long-standing efforts to protect and advance the community’s rights and interests in these spheres culminated in the opening in 1974 of La Citadelle, an all French secondary school.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Communications

PLAQUE #40

Location: At St. Raphael's Church Ruins, in the Village of St. Raphael, on Lancaster Concession 4, one mile west

BISHOP ALEXANDER MACDONELL

1762 - 1840

Born in Scotland and educated for the priesthood, MacDonell obtained land in Glengarry County and, in 1804, brought many soldiers from his disbanded Highland Regiment to join the Loyalists already in Upper Canada. Having helped raise a second regiment which he accompanied into action during the War of 1812, he launched an unsuccessful campaign for provincially supported Catholic Schools. Consecrated in 1826, he became the first Roman Catholic Bishop in Upper Canada. After serving as a Legislative Councillor (1831-9), he returned to Scotland to promote emigration to Canada. He died at Dumfries.

Né en Écosse et ordonné prétre, MacDonell obtint des terres dans le comté de Glengarry et, en 1804, amena de nombreux soldats de son Highland Regiment dans le Haut-Canada. Ayant aidé à recruter un nouveau régiment qu'il suivit sur le champ de bataille en 1812, il organisa sans succés une campagne pour faire subventionner par la province les écoles catholiques. Sacré évéque en 1826, il fut le premier prélat catholique du Haut-Canada. Il fut membre du Conseil législatif (1831-39), mais retourna en Écosse pour promouvoir l'émigration au Canada. Il mourut à Dumfries.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #41

Location: At Lock 20 in Lamoureux Park on Water St. W. just west of Pitt St., Cornwall

CORNWALL CANAL
LE CANAL DE CORNWALL
The Cornwall Canal was one of eight canals that connected western Canada with the ocean by way of the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River. Constructed in 1834 - 1842 to overcome the rapids of the Long Sault, it was enlarged several times between 1876 - 1904 and superseded by the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959.

Ce canal était l'un des huit canaux qui reliaient l'Ouest canadien et l'Atlantique par la voie des Grands Lacs et de Saint-Laurent. Construit de 1834 à 1842 pour contourner les rapides du Long-Sault, agrandi plusieurs fois entre 1876 et 1904, il fut remplacé par la voie maritime du Saint-Laurent en 1959.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #42

Location: In St. Andrews on the SW corner of Highway 138 and County Road 18

CAPTAIN MILES MACDONELL
Born in Scotland about 1769, Miles emigrated with his father, 'Spanish' John, and other members of the family to New York 1773. Following the Revolution, they settled near Cornwall at St. Andrews West. In 1811-12 he became Lord Selkirk's agent, and led the first band of settlers to the Red River colony. The Nor'Westers endeavoured to destroy the settlement, and arrested Macdonell on a false charge in 1815. Released without trial, he returned to his farm in Osnabruck township, but later moved to his brother's residence at Pointe Fortune, where he died in 1828.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #43

Location: On a stone cairn on the south side of County Road 20
west of Dalkeith at street number 21420

MACLEOD SETTLEMENT
In 1793 some forty families, including members of several clans, emigrated from Glenelg, Scotland, under the leadership of Alexander MacLeod and landed at St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island). The following year they came to Glengarry County and petitioned for land. In August, 1794, the majority were authorized to occupy 200 acres each in the vicinity of Kirkhill, which was for many years known as Glenelg. Alexander MacLeod, who was located on this property in 1794, was instrumental in founding one of the earliest Presbyterian parishes in Upper Canada here in Lochiel township. During the War of 1812 he served as a Captain in the 2nd Regiment of the Glengarry Militia and died March 4, 1850.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #44

Location: In St. Elmo, on the SW corner of County Road 20 and Concession 8 Road

SIR EDWARD ROBERT PEACOCK, G.C.V.O. 1871-1962
An internationally renowned financier, Peacock was born near here in the former Congregational Church manse and educated at Queen's University in Kingston. He taught at Upper Canada College for seven years before joining the Dominion Securities Corporation, a prominent investment company, in 1902. Five years later he was transferred to London, England to manage the firm's European office. Acclaimed for his exceptional financial abilities, Peacock played an increasingly important role in the international securities market and in industrial organization and reconstruction as a director of the Bank of England (1921-24, 1929-46), the head of Baring Brothers and Company (1929-54) and a director of the Commonwealth Development Finance Company (1953-59). He also became a trusted adviser to the Royal Family and was knighted for his services in 1934.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Communication

PLAQUE #45

Location: In St. Raphaels in front of the old college building on the north side of County Road 18 across from the ruined church
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THE COLLEGE OF IONA
Established by the Reverend Alexander Macdonell, father of Roman Catholic education in Upper Canada and later Bishop of Kingston, the College of Iona was opened in 1826 in a log building near this site. The central portion of the nearby stone structure, erected by Macdonell in 1808 as the presbytery for the parish, served as a residence for teachers and students. Much of the cost of construction and of the operational expenses of the school were borne by Macdonell. In addition to being the first seminary in Upper Canada, the school offered a general academic education preparing boys for secular vocations. After about ten years its functions were taken over by Regiopolis College in Kingston.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Recreation

PLAQUE #46

Location: In Martintown, on County Road 18 just east of the bridge on the south side

THE MARTINTOWN GRIST MILL
This mill was built in 1846 to replace part of a milling complex developed by Malcolm McMartin early in the century. Like similar operations throughout the province, the McMartin mills provided essential local services in an era of poor transportation. They served area residents by sawing timber, carding wool, fulling cloth and grinding grain. The mills and their associated tavern and store attracted tradesmen and residents, creating the village of Martintown. Malcolm McMartin's son Alexander, builder of this mill, became an influential local businessman, militia leader and politician. His grist mill survived in a market increasingly dominated by large competitors until it finally ceased operations in 1951.

Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Recreation

PLAQUE #47

Location: Along the St. Lawrence River, immediately adjacent to Upper Canada Village,
about 12 km east of Morrisburg

BATTLE OF CRYSLER'S FARM
Here, on the farm of John Crysler, was fought one of the decisive battles of the War of 1812. On 11 November 1813 Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Morrison, with 800 British and Canadian regulars, militia and Indians, engaged an American force of 4,000 under Brigadier-General John Boyd. The open terrain was suited to the training of the well-drilled British regulars who, after two hours of heavy fighting, routed the enemy. This victory ended a major American thrust at Montreal.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #48

Location: On Road 17 less than 1 km east of Bridge Street, Williamstown

BETHUNE-THOMPSON HOUSE
Historic construction techniques and classic design are combined in this early Ontario home. The vertical log south wing may date from the 1780s when Loyalist Peter Ferguson settled on the site. The central part was built ca. 1805 as a manse for Rev. John Bethune, the first Presbyterian Minister of Upper Canada and was later the residence of the explorer David Thompson. Beneath the stucco of the main block, the timber frame has three walls infilled with rubble stone and a fourth with "stick and mud". The five-bay facade, formerly flanked by similar wings, expresses the British classical tradition.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #49

Location: On Road 17 less than 1 km east of Bridge Street, Williamstown

BETHUNE-THOMPSON HOUSE
Built by Loyalist settler Peter Ferguson in 1784, the original log cabin on this site is one of the oldest surviving buildings in Ontario. The cabin walls were constructed using a French Canadian technique called poteaux sur sole where vertically placed, squared logs were held together by horizontal plates located along the top and bottom. The larger home adjoining it was built in 1804 by Reverend John Bethune (1751-1815), the first Presbyterian minister in Upper Canada. This home also incorporated a French Canadian construction technique, colombage pierroté, which used a timber frame filled with masonry rubble. The fireplace overmantle installed by Bethune is one of few remaining in the province. In 1815 David Thompson (1770-1857) acquired the house and lived here until about 1836. Thompson was an explorer and cartographer who surveyed much of what is now western Canada and mapped out the Canada-United States border. The house presents a unique architectural and historical record of early Ontario.

Ontario Heritage Trust, an agency of the Government of Ontario

PLAQUE #50

Location: At a park overlooking the Iroquois Lock at the south end of
Road 1, Township of South Dundas

THE CONSTRUCTION OF
THE ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY
Impressive for its immense scale, organizational complexity, and speedy completion, the construction of the St. Lawrence Seaway from 1954 to 1959 was an outstanding engineering achievement. This project, which included hydroelectric power generation and water-level control, transformed shipping on the St. Lawrence River above Montréal by allowing ocean going vessels access to the Great Lakes. Acting in close cooperation, the Canadian and American governments coordinated the planning and construction needed to complete this remarkable undertaking on the world's longest inland waterway.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #51

Location: At the entrance to Cornwall Collegiate and Vocational School,
on Sydney Street between Fourth and Fifth Streets East, Cornwall

CORNWALL GRAMMAR SCHOOL
Cornwall Collegiate and Vocational School traces its beginning to an educational institution founded by John Strachan in 1803. Strachan, an Anglican priest, opened a private school in his home where he hoped to educate young men to take on leading roles in society. In 1806 he built a schoolhouse that became one of the first provincially funded district grammar schools one year later. Many of Upper Canada's elite received their education under Strachan's respected and progressive tutelage. After he left for York (now Toronto) in 1812, various masters ran the Cornwall Grammar School. With provincial educational reform in 1871, it became Cornwall High School and began a new life as a modern secondary institution, becoming a collegiate in 1925, and adding vocational courses in 1938.

Ontario Heritage Trust, an agency of the Government of Ontario

PLAQUE #52

Location: At the foot of the staircase of the cairn at Glengarry Cairn National Historic Site
(not open to the public as of 2009) on Cairn Island off South Lancaster in the St. Lawrence River

GLENGARRY CAIRN
This cairn was erected under the supervision of Lieut-Col. Lewis Carmichael of the Imperial Army, then stationed in this district on particular service, by the Highland Militia of Glengarry which had aided in the suppression of the Canadian Rebellion of 1837-38, to commemorate the services of that distinguished soldier Sir John Colborne, who was declared by the historian Napier to have been, 'A man of singular talent for war' and who commanded her majesty's forces in Canada at that critical period. He had previously served with conspicuous merit throughout the Peninsular War and elsewhere and had greatly distinguished himself at Waterloo when in command of the 52nd regiment. He was Lieut. Governor of Upper Canada from November 1828 to January 1836, Governor General of Canada in 1839, and afterwards became Field Marshall Lord Seaton G.C.B. The cairn was repaired and this tablet erected in 1905.

PLAQUE #53

Location: On the north side of Montreal Rd. (Road 2) just west of Boundary Rd., Cornwall

INVERARDEN
This house, built in 1816, is a fine example of Regency architecture and its interior is a pleasing expression of Georgian symmetry with excellent detailing. In a wooded setting and commanding an impressive view, this was a fitting home for a country squire. It was built for retired fur trader John McDonald of Garth, an aggressive and successful North West Company wintering partner during the rivalry with the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1824 McDonald gave the house to a daughter, wife of retired fur trader John Duncan Campbell, and it remained in the Campbell family until 1965.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #54

Location: On the corner of Road 2 and Stonehouse Point Road just east of
Glen Walter across the road from street number 18527

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL JOHN MACDONELL
(ABERCHALDER)
c. 1750-1809
Born in Scotland, Macdonell came to New York in 1773. Commissioned ensign in the Royal Highland Emigrants (84th Regiment) in June 1775 and later transferred to Butler's Rangers, Macdonell served with distinction until 1784 when he settled with his clansmen in Charlottenburg Township. He represented Glengarry in the Legislative Assembly (1792-1800) and was chosen first speaker (1792-96). Macdonell served as Lieutenant of Glengarry (1793-1808), commander of the 2nd Battalion Royal Canadian Volunteers (1796-1802), and paymaster of the 10th Royal Veteran Battalion from 1807 until his death.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #55

Location: In a park a block west of the centre of the village on the
southwest corner of Road 18 and McIntosh Road, Dundela

THE MCINTOSH APPLE
In 1811, John McIntosh discovered an apple sapling on his land in Matilda township. By bringing about its propagation and wide dissemination, he and his family had a significant impact on Canada's fruit growing industry. The McIntosh apple not only possessed a highly desirable taste, texture, aroma and appearance, but was also ideally suited for growing in the country's colder climate. A number of well-known hybrids, such as the Cortland, Empire, Lobo and Spartan, were derived from this fruit. The McIntosh has become one of the most popular varieties grown in Canada and abroad.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #56

Location: At the entrance to Cornwall Collegiate and Vocational School on
Sydney Street between Fourth and Fifth Streets East, Cornwall

RIGHT REVEREND JOHN STRACHAN
1778-1867
Born in Scotland, Strachan came to Kingston in 1799. Ordained in 1803, he became rector of Cornwall and taught at its grammar school until named rector of York in 1812. In 1839 he was made first Anglican Bishop of Toronto. A central figure in the "Family Compact", he was a member of the Executive (1818-36) and the Legislative (1820-41) Councils. He promoted public schooling and, in 1827, secured a Charter for King's College of which he became first president. When, in 1849, King's College became the secular University of Toronto, he retired to found, in 1851, the Anglican Trinity College.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #57

Location: On the banks of the Raison River on Road 19 just south of Road 17 over the bridge, Williamstown

SIR JOHN JOHNSON HOUSE
One of the oldest buildings standing in Ontario, the original five-bay structure at the centre of this house was built between 1784 and 1792. It was once part of a mill site developed by Sir John Johnson to encourage Loyalists to settle along the St. Lawrence River after the American Revolution. The original log house, constructed in the French-Canadian manner, was enlarged to the west after 1813 and to the east with a large Gothic Revival wing in the 1860s. This house provides an excellent record of vernacular building in early Canada.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #58

Location: At Cornwall Public Library on the NW corner of Second St. E. and Sydney St., Cornwall

UNITED EMPIRE LOYALISTS
The United Empire Loyalists played a prominent role in the development of this country. In particular, the officers and men of the Royal Highland Emigrants, the King's Royal Regiment of New York, the Loyal Rangers and the King's Rangers, displayed unswerving fidelity in defence of the city and province of Québec during the American War of Independence (1775-83). In later years, they subdued the wilderness to create new homes and to lay the foundations of the province of Upper Canada.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #59

Location: At the foot of Ottawa Street (Road 4) at the water's edge, Morrisburg

THE WILLIAMSBURG CANALS
The canals at Farran's Point, Rapide Plat and Galops were known collectively as the Williamsburg Canals. All three were built in the period 1844-56 on the north side of the St. Lawrence to form part of the Great Lakes navigation system. Farran's Point Canal was 1.2 km long with a single lock; the Rapide Plat was 6.4 km long and had two locks; the Galops and Iroquois canals, together known as the Galops Canal, covered 12 km and had three locks. Ascending vessels used all three canals, while those descending used only the Galops. These canals disappeared with construction of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

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