Historical Plaques of
Middlesex County

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PLAQUE #1


Location: 399 Ridout St. N., London

THE FOUNDING OF LONDON

In 1793 here on the river Thames, Lieut.-Governor John Graves Simcoe selected a site for the capitol of Upper Canada. York, however became the seat of government and the townsite of London lay undeveloped until its selection in 1876 as the Judicial and Administrative centre of the London District. A court-house and gaol (1829) and homes for the government officials were built. Stores and hotels were erected and by 1834 the community contained over 1100 inhabitants. A British garrison stationed at London in 1838 stimulated its growth. Two years later it was incorporated as a town. With the development of a prosperous agricultural hinderland and the completion of the Great Western Railway London became a city in 1855.


Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Recreation

PLAQUE #2

Location: 481 Ridout St. N., London

ELDON HOUSE

Built in 1834 by Capt. John Harris, R.N., treasurer of the London District, this is London's oldest remaining house. With his wife Amelia, daughter of Samuel Ryerse, Harris came to London after the District Offices were moved here from Vittoria. For many years Eldon's house was a center of London's Cultural and Social Life and four generations of the Harris family dwelt in it during more than a 125 years. In 1960 the family gave the house with most of its furnishings and eleven acres of land to the city of London for a museum and park.


Erected by the Archaelogical and Historic Sites Board,
Archives of Ontario

The next plaque was sent in by L. Dawson

PLAQUE #3

Location: The cemetery is on Fanshawe Park Rd. E. in London,Ontario.

THE TOLPUDDLE MARTYRS
Within this cemetery lies George Loveless. He, with his brother James, John and Thomas Stanfield, James Brine and James Hammett were condemned to penal servitude in 1834 for organizing in Tolpuddle, Dorsetshire, England, a union of farm labourers. George Loveless was sent to Van Diemen's Land, the others to New South Wales. Public indignation brought about their pardon and return to England in 1837. The case of the Tolpuddle Martyrs became a turning point in labour laws and practices in the United Kingdom. In 1844 all except Hammett migrated to this district. George Loveless died near here May 6, 1874.

Ontario Archealogy and Historic Sites Board

The next plaque was sent in by Dorothy Dahm

PLAQUE #4

Location: Just off highway #2, at Delaware

EBENEZER ALLAN 1752 - 1813
Born in New Jersey, Allan joined the Loyalist forces in 1777 and served with Butler's Rangers and the Indian Department during the American Revolution. The founder of Rochester, N.Y. He moved to Upper Canada in 1794 and obtained 2000 acres of land in this area. That year he built a grist-mill around which grew the community of Delaware. Allan became involved in bitter disputes with the authorities over his land transactions and at the outbreak of the War of 1812 joined the Americans. While engaged in spreading disaffection among the local settlers, he was arrested and imprisoned. Released early in 1813 he died shortly thereafter.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

The next plaque was sent in by Don Holmes & Marilyn Mills

PLAQUE #5

Location: At St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, Lucan Ontario on
#4 Provincial Hwy, north of Elginfield, Biddulph Township

ST. PATRICK'S PARISH, LUCAN, 1854
Catholics began to settle in Biddulph and neighbouring townships in the 1840's around the time of the Great Famine in Ireland. For some years missionary priests from St.Thomas and London administered the Sacraments in various pioneer homes and halls.
In 1848 James Kelly donated five acres of his farm for use by the church. In 1850 a log church was built and the cemetery was consecrated. Father Peter Francis Crinnon became the first resident Pastor in 1854.

The church with its tall slender tower and lofty spire was erected during 1858-59 in the early Ontario gothic style. In 1869 the rectory was built in the Italianate style. The original one-room parish school now used as a parish hall was built in 1885. St. Patrick's remains one of the few parish centres in Ontario which still retains all its original buildings - Church - School and Rectory. In 1962 the present parish school was opened. During 1984-85 this historic church was completely renovated and on its western side a new chapel was erected.

This plaque was blessed and dedicated by Most Reverend John Michael Sherlock, D.D. Bishop of London and President of the Canadian Council of Catholic Bishops on Sunday, June 16 1985.


An Historical Plaque Of The Roman Catholic Diocese of London

The next 8 plaques were sent in by Dorothy Dahm

PLAQUE #6

Location: Just off highway #2, at Delaware

GIDEON TIFFANY 1774-1854
A native of New Hampshire who had come to Niagara in 1794 Tiffany was appointed King's Printer and published the official Upper Canada Gazette until 1797. He was not a Loyalist and the government concerned by his American background forced his resignation. In 1799 he and his brother Sylvester founded at Niagara this province's first independent newspaper the Canada Constellation. When it failed in 1800, Gideon moved to Delaware where with Moses Brigham and another brother Dr. Oliver Tiffany of Ancaster, he purchased a large tract of land, including the site of the present village from Ebenezer Allen and others . Active in township affairs he remained here for the rest of his life.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #7

Location: 196 Dufferin Ave., London

ST. PETER’S CATHEDRAL BASILICA

Begun in 1880 and dedicated on June 28, 1885, this magnificent structure was built during the episcopate of Bishop John Walsh to serve as the cathedral for the Diocese of London. Designed by the prominent architect, Joseph Connolly, it was constructed in the 13th-century French Gothic style which was favoured by Ontario’s Roman Catholics in the late 19th century. Among the cathedral’s most notable features are its massive bell towers, high transepts, imposing sanctuary and fine rose window made in Innsbruck, Austria. Although the interior was decorated in 1925-26 and the towers, sacristy and chapel completed in 1957-58, the building retains its original character. A religious centre for southwestern Ontario, St. Peter’s Cathedral was designated a minor Basilica by the Vatican in 1961.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Citizenship and Culture

PLAQUE #8

Location: In Victoria Park, bounded by Dufferin Ave.,
Central, Wellington & Clarence Streets, London

THE BRITISH GARRISON IN LONDON

In one of several concentrations of British troops in Upper Canada various infantry and artillery units were stationed on a military reserve here during the mid-19th century. The garrison, which contributed significantly to the economic growth of London, was first established in 1839 to guard against border raids following the Rebellion of 1837. Although its troops were withdrawn in 1853 to serve in the Crimean War, and military duties were assumed by pensioners, it was re-occupied by British regulars in 1862 when the American Civil War posed a threat to the province. To help repulse an expected invasion of Fenians, militant Irish sympathizers, the garrison remained active until 1868. Six years later, this part of the old military reserve was set aside as Victoria Park.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Communications

PLAQUE #9

Location: at the Public Library, 48 Hagerty Rd. Newbury

THE FOUNDING OF NEWBURY

The opening of a railway station near here in 1854 on the recently completed Great Western main line from Niagara Falls to Windsor provided the nucleus around which a community was soon established. In that year John Tucker and Robert Thompson registered subdivisions and a post office named "Newbury" was opened. The community flourished and by 1857, with a population of almost 500, it contained hotels, stores, sawmills, a gristmill, a foundry and several other small industries. The development of lumbering stimulated the growth of Newbury which by a county by-law of June 7, 1872, was incorporated as a village with a population of about 800. The fist council was elected in January, 1873.

Erected by the Archaelogical and Historic Sites Board,
Archives of Ontario

PLAQUE #10

Location: In front of Town Hall, 52 Frank St., Strathroy

THE FOUNDING OF STRATHROY

In 1830 James Buchanan, the British Consul at New York City, acquired a tract of 1200 acres of unsettled land in Adelaide Township. He transferred control of the property to his son, John Stewart Buchanan (1815-1875), who settled there within the next two years. By 1836 John had built a sawmill and grist-mill on the Sydenham River. These pioneer industries formed the nucleus of a settlement which was named Strathroy by James Buchanan after his birthplace in County Tyrone, Ireland. The construction of a branch line of the Great Western Railway through Strathroy in 1856 further stimulated the community’s development, and it was incorporated in 1860.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #11

Location: Beside Town Hall, 52 Frank St. Strathroy

THE HON. EDWARD BLAKE 1833-1912

Born near Strathroy of Irish parents, Blake, a distinguished lawyer and brilliant orator, was elected in 1867 both to the Canadian parliament for West Durham and to the Ontario legislature for South Bruce. After serving as leader of the Liberal opposition in the provincial house, he became Ontario’s second prime minister in 1871, but resigned his provincial seat the following year. Blake served as federal minister of justice in Alexander Mackenzie’s cabinet and was recognized as a foremost authority on constitutional law. In 1892 he went to the United Kingdom where for fifteen years he served as an Irish Nationalist member in parliament. Disabled by illness in 1907, he returned to Canada.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #12

Location: Strathroy Dist. College Inst., 96 Kittredge Ave., E. Strathroy

GENERAL SIR ARTHUR CURRIE 1875-1933

One of Canada’s most distinguished soldiers, Currie was born on a farm some three miles from here and attended Strathroy Collegiate Institute. In 1894 he went to Victoria, B.C. where he joined the militia in 1897. At the outbreak of World War I he was given command of the 2nd Canadian Infantry Brigade and went overseas in 1914. He led the 1st Canadian Division at Vimy Ridge in 1917 and shortly after became General Officer Commanding the Canadian Corps. On his return to Canada he was promoted to the rank of full General. From 1920 until his death he served as Principal and Vice-Chancellor of McGill University.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #13

Location: Melwood Dr., one road west of Co. Rd. 6,
outside the community of Napier, sw of Strathroy

ST. MARY’S CHURCH
In 1832 and 1833 a considerable number of retired veterans of the British Army and Navy, some of whom had commuted their pensions for land, settled in this area. Largely members of the Church of England, their spiritual welfare was at first cared for by the rector of Adelaide township, the Reverend Dominick Edward Blake. In 1840 one of these settlers, Lieutenant Charles Preston, donated land for a church and burying ground, and this frame building was constructed about 1843. St. Mary’s is the oldest remaining church in Middlesex County. It was consecrated by Bishop Benjamin Cronyn in 1860, and many of the original settlers lie buried in the adjacent churchyard.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #14

Location: Behind the Post Office, 179 Main St., Lucan

THE WILBERFORCE SETTLEMENT 1830

In 1829 a group of fugitive Negro slaves in Cincinnati decided to seek a more secure refuge in Canada. In 1830, with the help of Quakers in Oberlin, Ohio, they purchased 800 acres of land in this vicinity from the Canada Company. A settlement was established, the first in Biddulph Township, and groups from New England and New York State joined those from Ohio. By 1833 there were thirty-two families, two schools and a sawmill in this settlement, which was named after the great British abolitionist William Wilberforce. One of the earliest Negro colonies in Upper Canada, its population dwindled rapidly in the 1840's although some families remained for more than a generation.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board Ontario

PLAQUE #15

Location: at the Community Centre, Co. Rd. 7 & Jameson St., Ailsa Craig

AILSA CRAIG

The founding of this community coincided with the construction of the section of the Grand Trunk Railway line from St. Mary's to Point Edwards, begun in 1858 and completed a year later. In 1861 David Craig and W.G. Shipley registered subdivisions and a post office was opened. Adopting the name of a small Scottish island, Ailsa Craig, the settlement flourished as the centre for the fertile surrounding region. In 1870 it had a population of 500 and contained hotels, stores, mills and several other small industries. By this time Ailsa Craig had become the site of the largest cattle market west of London. By a Provincial Act of December 21, 1874, the community became an incorporated Village, and the first council met on January 19, 1875.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Recreation

PLAQUE #16

Location: East Williams Memorial Public School, Nairn

SIR GEORGE W. ROSS
1841 - 1914

Born on a nearby farm, Ontario's fifth prime minister was for many years a teacher and a school inspector in Middlesex County. He was elected to the federal parliament in 1872 as Liberal member for Middlesex West. In 1883, he entered the Ontario government as minister of education under Oliver Mowat. When A.S. Hardy retired in 1899, G.W. Ross became prime minister of Ontario and provincial treasurer. His government, 1899-1905, promoted distribution of hydro-electric power and the construction of a provincial railway for northern Ontario. Appointed to the Senate in 1907, he was its Liberal leader from 1911 until his death. Ross was knighted for his public service in 1911.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board Ontario

PLAQUE #17

Location: at the Municipal Offices, 229 Main St., Parkhill

THE FOUNDING OF PARKHILL

The opening of a railway station near here in 1860 on the recently completed Grand Trunk line from Guelph to Sarnia provided the nucleus around which a community soon became established. A post-office named Westwood (renamed Swainby in 1861 and Park Hill in 1863) was opened that year. In 1861 a village plot was laid out by William Kelly. Growth was slow until 1865 when a bonus subscribed by the citizens induced John Harrison to build a steam-powered grist-mill. Other industries, including a brickyard and a foundry, soon followed, and by 1891 Parkhill was a thriving community of about 1500 people. It became an incorporated village on January 1, 1872, and a town fourteen years later.

Erected by the Archaeological and Historic Sites Board,
Department of Public Records and Achives of Ontario

PLAQUE #18

Location: at the Chapel of Hope, London Psychiatric Hospital,
850 Highbury Ave., London

RICHARD MAURICE BUCKE, M.D. 1837 - 1902

A pioneer in the study and treatment of mental illness, Bucke was born in Norfolk, England and raised near here. He graduated from the McGill College medical school in 1862, after spending several adventure-filled years in the American West, and from 1877 until his death he served as superintendent of the London Asylum for the Insane. During his tenure at this hospital, Bucke attracted widespread attention for his progressive theories on emotional disorders and his innovative care of mental patients. Inspired by the writings of Walt Whitman, the American poet whose biography he later wrote, he also devoted himself to far-reaching philosophical speculations. With the publication in 1901 of his celebrated book, Cosmic Consciousness, Bucke became recognized as a leading interpreter of the mystical experience.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Citizenship and Culture

PLAQUE #19

Location: corner of King & Ridout Sts., London

On this site in the year 1826

The first dwelling was erected
in the town plot of London by
Peter MacGregor

Note: - The site of the City of London
was selected by Lt. Governor Simcoe
----- 1792 ----
This tablet erected by the London and Middlesex
Historical Society 1906
__________________


PLAQUE #20

Location: London Reg. Art Gallery, 421 Ridout St. N., London

1860 PAUL PEEL 1892
This noted Canadian artist was born in this city and about 1875 had a studio on Richmond Street in the marble works operated by his father. After studying in Philadelphia and at the Royal Academy Schools, London, England, he moved to Paris in 1887 where he worked under such prominent painters as Gérôme, Boulanger and Constant. Peel is represented in the National Gallery of Canada by "Mother Love", "A Venetian Bather" and other canvases. Examples of his work are also to be found in the civic galleries of London, Toronto, Vancouver and in other public and private collections. After a short but brilliant career, Peel died in Paris in 1892.

Erected by the Archaeological and Historic Sites Board,
Department of Public Records and Archives of Ontario

PLAQUE #21


Location: Fanshawe Pioneer Village, 1424 Clarke Rd., London

PAUL PEEL

1860 -1892

Born in London, Ontario, Peel became one of the most prominent Canadian painters of the French academic school of painting and among the first to gain an international reputation. He studied art in Philadelphia, London, England, and Paris where he was influenced by the current European fashion for polished brush technique and subjects taken from everday life. In 1890 his most famous painting, After The Bath, was awarded a medal at the Paris Salon. He returned to Canada twice to exhibit his work and was elected a fellow of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts in 1890.

Nè à London (Ontario), Peel fut l'un des plus importants peintres canadiens de la tradition académique française, ainsi que l'un des premiers à se mériter une renommée mondiale. lI étudia la peinture à Philadelphie et à Londres, puis à Paris oú il fur influencé par la peinture de genre, alors à la mode en Europe. En 1890, sa fameuse toile Aprés le bain lul mérita une médaille au Salon de Paris. Revenue deux fois au Canada pour exposer ses oeuvres, il fut un membre de la Royal Canadian Academy of Arts en 1890.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #22

Location: 399 Ridout St. N., London

MIDDLESEX COURT HOUSE
LE PALAIS DE JUSTICE DE
MIDDLESEX
Erected in 1830, this building was modelled after Malahide Castle, near Dublin, Ireland, the ancestral home of Colonel Thomas Talbot, founder of the Talbot Settlement. The site was a part of the town plot set aside by Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe after his visit to The Forks in February, 1793, Here he proposed to locate the provincial capital.

En 1830, le colonel Talbot, fondateur de la colonie Talbot, lît érîgé cet édifice d'après le modèle de Malahide Castle, près de Dublin, sa maison ancestrale. L'emplacement faisait partie du lotissement urbain réservé par le lieutenant-gouverneur John Grave Simcoe, lors de sa visite à - The Forks -, en février 1793. C'est ici qu'il projetait d'établir la capitale provinciale.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #23

Location: Richmond St. & Queens Ave., London

ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL 1846
The nave and tower of this church were designed in English Gothic Revival style by architect William Thomas and constructed in 1844-46. Previously the Anglican congregation had held services in a wooden structure on the site. It had been opened in 1834 but was destroyed by fire ten years later. The first resident missionary to serve the London area was the Reverend E.J. Boswell who arrived in 1829. He was succeeded by the Reverend Benjamin Cronyn in 1833. In 1857 the Diocese of Huron was created and St. Paul's designated as its cathedral. Here for the first time in the British Empire a synod elected a bishop. Extensively altered in 1892-94, the building remains one of London's outstanding landmarks.

Erected by the Archaeological and Historic Sites Board,
Department of Public Records and Archives of Ontario

PLAQUE #24

Location: First St. Andrew's United Church, 30 Queens Ave., London

REVEREND WILLIAM PROUDFOOT 1788 - 1851
An outstanding Presbyterian and missionary and church leader, William Proudfoot was born near Peebles, Scotland and educated at the University of Edinburgh. Ordained in 1813, he served in Scotland until 1832 when he came to Upper Canada. A year later he settled in London. An energetic, authoritative man, Proudfoot made numerous preaching tours and organized congregations and missionary stations throughout Upper Canada and in the United States. In 1834 he founded the Missionary Presbytery of the Canadas in connection with the United Secession Church of Scotland and in 1844 he opened a divinity school in London to train Canadian clergy. Proudfoot wrote extensively on religious and secular matters and his diaries and letters provide a valuable account of 19th century life in Upper Canada.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Citizenship and Culture

PLAQUE #25

Location: Kenneth Ave. & Waterloo St., London

PICCADILLY PARK

    This Ordnance Survey stone marks the
    north-east corner of the former Military
    Lands where units of the British Garrisons
    were stationed between 1838 and 1868.
    In 1873 the Ordnance Lands became the
    property of the municipality and Victoria
    Park was created in the area to the
    south of Central Avenue. The Fair Grounds
    occupied the northern section until moving
    to the Queen's Park site in 1887. Carling's
    Creek, which flowed to the west below
    this point, was dammed to form Lake
    Horn.

    Erected by the City of London and the
    London & Middlesex Historical Society

1987

PLAQUE #26

Location: London Squash Racquets Club, 76 Albert St., London

JOSIAH BLACKBURN 1823 - 1890
The son of a Congregationalist minister, Blackburn was born in London, England. After some experience in journalism he immigrated to Canada West (now Ontario) in 1850 and joined the staff of The Star in Paris. Two years later he purchased a small London weekly, The Canadian Free Press, from its founder, William Sutherland. Blackburn's keen business sense and flair for political writing made this newspaper a success. In 1855 he began a daily, The London Free Press and Daily Western Advertiser - later, The London Free Press. He also controlled The Ingersoll Chronicle and helped found The Mail in Toronto. An ardent liberal who later became an equally fervent conservative, he was one of the province's most influential newspaper publishers.

Erected by the Archaeological and Historic Sites Board,
Ministry of College and Universities

PLAQUE #27

Location: on the north wall of Huron College Chapel, Western Rd.,
University of Western Ontario Campus, London

HURON COLLEGE 1863
The college was founded by the Right Reverend Benjamin Cronyn who, following his election in 1857 as first Anglican Bishop of Huron, saw the need for a theological school and institution for advanced studies to serve the rapidly expanding population of the region. He selected Archdeacon Isaac Hellmuth to raise funds in England and Canada, and Huron College was incorporated in May 1863. Under Hellmuth's capable direction 1863-66 the institution provided theological training and a course in liberal arts. In 1877 the professors and alumni of this college, strongly supported by Hellmuth, proposed the establishment of the Western University of London, founded in 1878, with which Huron became affiliated in 1881.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #28

Location: 1600 Attawandaron, at the entrance to the reconstructed Indian Village, London

THE LAWSON SITE
About 1500 A.D. a Prehistoric Neutral (late Ontario Iroquois) Indian village occupied this site. Archaeological excavations suggest that it was an agricultural community covering 4-5 acres and housing approximately 1,000 inhabitants in communal longhouses. Strategically located so that protection was provided by steep slopes leading down to Medway River and Snake Creek, the village was heavily fortified in exposed areas by palisades, earthworks, ditches and lookout platforms stockpiled with rocks. Although the existence of the site was known in the nineteenth century, the first extensive excavations were undertaken in 1921-23 at which time it was named after the Lawson family who then owned the property. In 1969 this land was donated to the University of Western Ontario to ensure preservation of this important heritage resource.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Recreation

PLAQUE #29

Location: Greenway Park, London

THE "VICTORIA" BOAT DISASTER 1881
On May 24, 1881, one of Canada's worst marine disasters occurred on the Thames River near this site. The "Victoria", a small, double-decked stern-wheeler commanded by Captain Donald Rankin, was conducting holiday excursion trips between London and Springbank Park. On a return trip to London the boat was dangerously overcrowded with more than 600 passengers. Oblivious of the danger, the crowd repeatedly shifted from side to side, resulting in flooding and a precarious rocking motion of the boat. It finally heeled over and the boiler crashed through the bulworks, bringing the upper-deck and large awning down upon the struggling crowd. The "Victoria" sank immediately and at least 182 people, the majority from London, lost their lives.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Recreation

PLAQUE #30

Location: 399 Ridout St. N., London

FIRST HUSSARS MUSEUM
The museum commemorates the magnificent fighting reputation which members of the FIRST HUSSARS won in South Africa, and in Northwest Europe during two World Wars, and also pays tribute to those Canadian comrades who gave their lives in the cause of freedom. From its modest beginnings in 1856 as the 1st London Volunteer Troop of Calvary, consolidation into a regiment in 1872, and designation as the FIRST HUSSARS in 1892, this combat unit earned thirty-four Battle Honours.
"HODIE NON CRAS"
(Today not Tomorrow)

Erected with financial assistance from the
Ontario Ministry of Culture and Communications


PLAQUE #31

Location: 750 Elizabeth St., at The Royal Canadian Regiment Museum, London

WOLSELEY BARRACKS
INFANTRY SCHOOL
BUILDING

    This building, typical of military
    architecture of its period, was
    built in 1886 to provide quarters
    for the recently authorized "D"
    Company, Infantry School Corps, an
    early step in the development of
    the permanent forces of Canada. In
    1901, after three changes, the Corps
    was renamed the Royal Canadian
    Regiment. Regimental Headquarters
    moved here in 1923.
    During the years 1914-18 and
    1939-45 while the regiment was
    on active service the building
    was used for recruiting, training
    and demobilization. The Regiment
    returned to the Barracks in 1953.

Historic Sites and Mouments
Board of Canada

PLAQUE #32

Location: 1017 Western Rd., London

City of London
Designated Heritage Property

GROSVENOR LODGE
1853

Grosvenor Lodge is one of the best examples of the country estates that were developed on the outskirts of London in the prosperous mid-1850's.

This building is a monument to two early citizens of London, both of whom played important roles in the City's development. Samuel Peters came to Canada as a surveyor in 1835, but soon established himself in London as an entrepreneur who, like so many of his contemporaries, explored various lines of business: he ran a grocery store, a distillery, a abattoir, and he invested his earnings in real estate, so that he eventually owned considerable tracts of land. He owned and developed Petersville, the area west of Blackfriar's Bridge. He also created a country estate for himself and his family, and there in 1853 built Grosvenor Lodge as the family home.

The house was designed by his nephew Samuel Peters, Jr., also a surveyor who had maintained the practice of his initial profession. The younger Peters was London's first city engineer and was one of its earliest architects. In these three capacities, he proved largely responsible for the layout and the appearance of the early city.

Grosvenor Lodge is witness to the architectural skill of Samuel Peters Jr.. In plan, it provides a good example of a substantial Georgian residence of the period, but its facade, inspired by a manor house in the Peters' native Devonshire, is one of the best examples of the Tudor Revival Style in Ontario.

PLAQUE #33

Location: Forks of the Thames, 1 Dundas St., London

THAMES RIVER
Called Askunesippi (Antlered River) by the
Natives and later La Tranche (The Ditch)
by the French, the Thames River was renamed
in 1793 by Lieutenant-Governor John Graves
Simcoe after its namesake in England.
Originating in Perth and Oxford counties
respectively, it north and south branches
merge at London eventually to empty into
Lake St. Clair. The river has been a focal
point for commercial and recreational
activities in the communities through
which it flows.

Erected by the Historic Sites Committee of
the London Public Library Board. June, 1997.


PLAQUE #34

Location: 471 Richmond St., London

City of London
Designated Heritage Property

GRAND THEATRE
(1901; Rebuilt 1978

Theatre has had a long tradition in London starting in 1839 with the opening of a British Army Garrison Theatre. Local productions and travelling shows appeared in a variety of locations until 1880 when the Grand Opera House at King and Richmond was opened. It was leased by C.J. Whitney, a Detroit theatre promoter who booked the biggest acts of the day including Henry Irving, Annie Pixley, and Sarah Bernhardt. The Grand burned in 1900 and was replaced by Whitney and his partner Torontonian Ambrose Small with this building completed in 1901. With 1850 seats, it was one of the largest theatres in Ontario. The proscenium arch, the side boxes and the two balconies were typical of touring houses of the day. Small's disappearance a few hours after selling his theatre chain in 1919 remains a mystery to this day.

Famous Players bought the building in 1924 and converted it to a movie theatre though it always remained more popular as an amateur theatre; in 1945, the local amateur theatre company, the London Little Theatre, bought the Grand where they had been performing since 1934. Many Londoners acted in, directed and worked behind the scenes of the nearly 250 LLT productions. Many received national awards at the Dominion Drama Festival competitions, particularly during Peter Dearling's years as artistic director (1957-1968).

The LLT turned professional in 1971 under the name Theatre London, later renamed the Grand Theatre. A massive renovation which saw most of the building demolished except for the arch and the stage, was completed in 1978.

PLAQUE #35

Location: 10 Grand Ave., London

City of London
Designated Heritage Property

10 GRAND AVENUE
"WAVERLEY"

Built in 1882 for Charles Goodhue, Waverley is one of the mansions that made Grand Avenue a showpiece of London during the late nineteenth century. Charles inherited the wealth that enabled him to build the house for his father, the lawyer and entrepreneur George Goohhue, who was reputed to be London's first millionaire. The final designs for Waverley were drawn by George Durand: they extensively modified earlier drawings produced by Goodhue's brother-in-law, English architect Hamilton Tovey.

In 1893, Charles Goodhue's daughter sold Waverley to Thomas Smallman. A founder of the Imperial Oil Company, and later, of the London Life Insurance Company. After Smallman's death, Waverley was inhabited by their daughter Eleanor and her husband Claude Kyd Morgan. The building later gained fame as the home of the Shute Institute, which pioneered the medical applications of Vitamin E.

The two-and-a-half storey white brick house is an impressive example of the highly decorated early Queen Anne style. The house contains an abundance of exterior ornamental woodwork and brickwork, in its shingled gables and dormers, its belvedere and its several porches, in its bracketed eaves, in its decorative panels and in the chimneys. The Smallmans added the porte cochere with its elaborately turned posts. The Morgan's added the conservatory and the round porch. Waverley and its near-neighbour Idlewyld together still project the image of the grandeur that once characterized and defined Grand Avenue.

PLAQUE #36

Location: 442 Adelaide St. N., London

BANTING HOUSE
LA MAISON BANTING
Here, in the early morning hours of October 31, 1920, Dr. Frederick Banting conceived an idea for research that led to the discovery of insulin. He believed that diabetes, then a fatal disease, could be treated by a substance extracted from a dog's atrophied pancreas. Banting was the pivotal member of the Toronto team that isolated and refined this extract, now known as insulin. In January 1922, insulin showed spectacular test results and begame a lifesaving therapy worldwide. Banting House, known as the "Birthplace of Insulin", reminds us of the most important Canadian medical discovery of the 20th century.

C'est dans la maison Banting que se produisit la plus grande découverte médicale du XXc siècle au Canada. À l'aurore du 31 octobre 1920, Frederick Banting cut l'intuition du processus qui allail mener à la découverte de I'insuline: à savoir que l'on pourrait soigner le diabète, maladie jusque-là fatale grâce à une substance extraite du pancréas atrophié d'un chien. Il fut le principal artisan de l'équipe de Toronto qui a isolé et-raffiné l'insuline. Après des test fructucux en janvier 1922, la prodection de l'insuline permit aux diabétiques du monde entier de bénéficier dune thérapie salutaire.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

The following plaque was sent in by the McRae Family;
Tom, Cathy, Sarah, Daniel, Matthew, Alexander and Nick

PLAQUE #37

Location: outside the Lucan Community Memorial Centre, 263 Main Street, Lucan

THE FOUNDING OF LUCAN
Lucan was founded in anticipation of the construction of the Grand Trunk Railway to Sarnia, projected in 1854 and built 1855-59. The first settlers had been members of the Negro Wilberforce Colony in 1830-35. One of this group, Peter Butler Sr., had by 1855 acquired the western part of the site of Lucan. The eastern part was acquired jointly by the Hon. Donald and John MacDonald, and the first village lots were sold in 1855. A steam grist mill, stores and hotels were built. Lucan Post Office was opened on June 1, 1857, and, with the completion of the railway, the settlement prospered. The Lucan Foundry, a large plant specializing in agricultural machinery, was founded in 1861. A county by-law passed in 1871 provided for the incorporation of Lucan as a village.

Erected by the Archeological and Historic Sites Board,
Department of Public Records and Archives of Ontario

PLAQUE #38

Location: On the SW corner of Dundas Street and Waterloo Street, London

HAROLD A. ROGERS, O.C., O.B.E.
1899-1994
The founder of Kinsmen & Kinette Clubs of Canada was born and raised at 324 Dundas Street, directly across from the armouries. Seeking the camaraderie he had experienced in the army during the First World War, "Hal" Rogers began the first Kinsmen Club in Hamilton in 1920. Under his guidance other clubs soon formed, each dedicated to "serving the community's greatest need". Ongoing contributions from women prompted the formation of the Kinettes in 1942. During the Second World War, Rogers chaired the "Milk for Britain" campaign, the first of the clubs' many national projects. By visiting clubs across Canada throughout his life, he inspired countless young Canadians to serve their communities.

Ontario Heritage Foundation, an agency of the Government of Ontario

PLAQUE #39

Location: On a wall in an archway at the north end of the Stevenson Lawson Building, Oxford Drive,
University of Western Ontario campus, London

THE RT. REV. ISAAC HELLMUTH
1817-1901
Born in Poland and educated at Breslau University, Hellmuth lived briefly in England before emigrating to Canada in 1844, where, two years later, he wass ordained in the Church of England. Appointed Archdeacon of Huron in 1861, he assisted Bishop Benjamin Cronyn in the establishment of Huron College, and served as its first principal, 1863-66. Succeeding Cronyn as Bishop of Huron in 1871, Hellmuth's foresight and determination led to the founding, in 1878, of this university, then known as the Western University of London. He served as its first chancellor, 1878-1884. After spending some 25 years ministering to spiritual and educational needs in this region, he returned to England in 1884.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #40

Location: Inside the Middlesex Court House on the southwest corner of
Dundas Street and Ridout Street on the wall in the reception area, London

ADAM SHORTT
1859-1931
Born near London, Shortt studied at Queen's University and in Scotland, later returning to Queen's where he established the department of political economy. A noted teacher, he was an advisor to governments, served on several commissions, and in 1908, after 22 years of teaching became a member of the first Canadian Civil Service Commission. In Ottawa, in association with the Dominion archivist, Arthur Doughty, he helped develop the collections of the national archives. Between 1913 and 1917 the two co-edited the important historical series Canada and its Provinces.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #41

Location: Inside the Middlesex Court House on the southwest corner of
Dundas Street and Ridout Street on the wall in the reception area, London

ARCHIBALD BYRON MACALLUM
1859-1934
Born at Belmont, Upper Canada, and educated at Toronto and Johns Hopkins, Macallum joined the faculty of the University of Toronto and established there the first physiological laboratory in Canada. As Professor of Biochemistry at Toronto (1908-18), Chairman of the National Research Council (1916-20), and Professor of Biochemistry at McGill (1920-29), Dr. Macallum was a pioneer in scientific medicine and an authority in the field of cellular microchemistry. The author of many scientific papers, he was elected F.R.S.C. in 1901 and F.R.S. in 1906. He died at London, Ontario.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #42

Location: On Road 2 at street #2945 1 km east of Road 76

BATTLE HILL
Here was fought the Battle of the Longwoods, 4th March, 1814. United States troops were entrenched on this hill. The British losses were Captain D. Johnson and Lieutenant P. Graeme and twelve men of the Royal Scots Light Company and 89th Light Company killed, fifty-two officers and men of these companies and of the Loyal Kent Volunteers, wounded.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #43

Location: At the west end of Grosvenor Street in Gibbons Park
at the east end of the bridge over the river, London

THE BOUNDARY WATERS TREATY OF 1909
This treaty was negotiated by the United States and Great Britain to establish mechanisms for resolving issues over the use of water along the Canadian-American boundary. George Gibbons, a lawyer from London, Ontario, was a driving force throughout the negotiations. The treaty created the International Joint Commission, with equal Canadian and American representation, to prevent and settle disputes. At a time when the country had not yet achieved full national sovereignty, the treaty enhanced Canada's powers in its relations with both Great Britain and the United States.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #44

Location: At Entrance A of the London Health Sciences Center (The London Regional Cancer Program entryway)
northeast of Commissioners Road East and Wellington Road, London

COBALT TELETHERAPY UNIT
In 1951 Canadian scientists, here and in Saskatoon, opened a new front in the battle against cancer. Through a pioneering partnership, the two teams of physicists, physicians and engineers, working independently yet cooperatively, designed the Saskatoon and the Eldorado (London) cobalt teletherapy units. Both became prototypes for the first commercially available units, then called "Cobalt Bombs", which allowed gamma radiation to be focussed directly on cancerous cells. Decades of effective worldwide use have proven the dependability of these units.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #45

Location: Inside the Middlesex Court House on the southwest corner of Dundas Street
and Ridout Street on the wall in the reception area, London

EDWARD BLAKE 1833-1912
Lawyer, leading member of the Canada First movement, and statesman, Edward Blake was born in Middlesex County, Upper Canada. He was the second premier of Ontario (1871-2) and a member of the House of Commons for twenty-two years, serving as Minister of Justice in the cabinet of Alexander Mackenzie and as leader of the federal Liberal party (1880-1887). An authority on the constitution and exponent of provincial rights, he argued a number of important cases before the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. He sat in the British parliament as an Irish Nationalist (1892-1907). He died in Toronto.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #46

Location: Outside the reception area of the brewery on the
south side of Simcoe Street just west of Richmond Street, London

JOHN KINDER LABATT
1803-1866
Born in Ireland, John Kinder Labatt came to Canada in 1834 and began farming near London. In 1847 he acquired an interest in the London brewery of Samuel Eccles, which had been established by John Balkwill in 1827-28. On Eccles' retirement in 1854, Labatt became the sole owner of the brewery which, under his son and grandson, became one of Canada's largest. John Labatt was also active in the establishment of London's early financial institutions and a promoter of local road and rail transportation.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #47

Location: On Longwoods Road (Road 2) at
street #4421 3.7 km east of Dundonald Road (Road 80)

PETER McARTHUR
1866-1924
Born near Appin, Upper Canada, McArthur attended the University of Toronto and worked briefly for the Toronto Mail before moving to New York in 1890. In 1896 he became editor of Truth and as such encouraged both Canadian and American writers. Returning to his birthplace in 1908 he combined farming with journalism, contributing many articles, essays and poems to the press. Several compilations of his work were published, the best known of which is a collection of essays entitled In Pastures Green. He died in London, Ontario.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #48

Location: On the west side of Ridout Street North at Queens Avenue, London

THE RIDOUT STREET COMPLEX
This streetscape includes several of London's earliest buildings and provides a capsule view of the appearance of mid-19th century Ontario cities. These buildings, the earliest of which was begun in 1835, include residential, industrial and commercial premises all intermingled on one of the city's main streets. The group of structures soon became known as "Bankers' Row" because of the presence of five branch offices here. After years of neglect and deterioration, they were threatened until John Labatt Limited, in a move to preserve this rich heritage, restored three structures.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #49

Location: Just inside the entrance doors at 1250 Dundas Street East west of
Highbury Avenue, currently the home of the Thames Valley District School Board, London

SIR ADAM BECK
1857-1925
Born at Baden, Ontario, Beck became a manufacturer in London which he represented in the Legislative Assembly (1902-19 and 1923-25). A member of the provincial cabinet (1905-14 and 1923-25) he presided in 1906 over the enactment of the law establishing the Ontario Hydro-Electric Power Commission. From the creation of the Commission until his death at London he served as its chief administrative officer.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #50

Location: Inside the Middlesex Court House on the southwest corner of Dundas
Street and Ridout Street on the wall in the reception area, London

SIR ARTHUR WILLIAM CURRIE
1875-1933
Born at Napperton, Currie served in the Canadian Garrison Artillery (1897-1914), rising to command his regiment in 1909. In 1914, he led the 2nd Brigade of the 50th Regiment Gordon Highlanders overseas and after successive promotions became Major-General in command of the First Canadian Division. After Vimy Ridge he was promoted Lieutenant-General and commanded the Canadian Corps until the end of the war. On returning to Canada he became the first General in the Canadian Army. From 1920 until his death he served as Principal and Vice-Chancellor of McGill University. He died at Montreal.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #51

Location: In the entrance foyer of City Hall on the northeast corner
of Dufferin Avenue and Wellington Street, London

SIR CHARLES EDWARD SAUNDERS
1867-1937
Born at London, educated at Toronto and Johns Hopkins, Saunders was Dominion Cerealist at the Experimental Farm, Ottawa (1903-22), and there, in 1904, developed the famous Marquis wheat which was first used by farmers in 1910. An improved variety of Marquis, introduced in 1947, bears his name. He also developed Ruby, Garnet and Reward, wheat varieties particularly adapted to Prairie conditions. His enormous contributions to agriculture were recognized in his election to the Royal Society of Canada in 1921 and in his being named as first recipient of the Flavelle Medal in 1925. He died at Toronto.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #52

Location: Inside the Middlesex Court House on the southwest corner of Dundas Street
and Ridout Street on the wall in the reception area, London

SIR GEORGE WILLIAM ROSS
1841-1914
Born in Middlesex County, Ross was a teacher and school inspector before entering law and politics. Having represented West Middlesex as a Liberal member of the House of Commons (1872-83), he entered provincial politics, was Minister of Education (1883-99), and became premier in 1899. Precariously surviving the election of 1902, his defeat in 1905 marked the end of 34 years of Liberal rule in Ontario. Called to the Senate in 1907 he was Liberal leader there from 1911 until his death. An outstanding public speaker, he was also the author of several works on politics and education. He died at Toronto.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #53

Location: In a park on the north side of Dundas Street between
Waterloo and Colborne Streets, London

WILLIAM SAUNDERS
1836-1914
Born in England, Saunders came to Canada in 1848 and became a manufacturing chemist. A recognized expert in scientific agriculture, he was appointed Director of the new Experimental Farms Branch of the federal Department of Agriculture in 1886. There he originated many promising varieties of fruit and grain and commenced the research which led to the development of Marquis wheat by his son, Charles. Charter member of the Royal Society of Canada and President (1906-07), he was a distinguished member of many learned societies and author of many seminal articles, papers and reports. He died at London.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #54

Location: In the entrance foyer of City Hall on the northeast corner
of Dufferin Avenue and Wellington Street, London

SIR JOHN CARLING
1828-1911
Born in London Township, Carling succeeded his father as President of Carling Brewing and Malting Co., entered politics as a Conservative and represented London in the Legislative Assembly of Canada (1857-67), in the provincial legislature (1867-73), and in the House of Commons (1867-74, 1878-91, and 1892-5). Called to the Senate in 1891, he resigned the following year only to be reappointed in 1896. He held portfolios in several cabinets but his most significant contribution to Canadian life occurred when, as Minister of Agriculture (1885-92), he founded the system of Dominion Experimental Farms. He died at London.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

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