Historical Plaques of
Hamilton-Wentworth

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The following plaque was sent in by Marie Walpole

PLAQUE #1


Location: Hamilton, Upper Wellington Street
between Stone Church and Rymal Rd.

YOUNG CEMETERY

THIS CEMETERY WAS PART OF THE YOUNG FARM
PUR CHASED IN 1806 BY DANIEL YOUNG.

WHAT IS REPUTED TO BE "HAMILTON'S FIRST MURDER MYSTERY" IS CONNECTED WITH THIS FARM PROPERTY.

DANIEL'S SON JOHN AND HIS GRANDSON CHRISTOPHER WERE ACCUSED OF MURDERING FARM EMPLOYEE JESSE MASTERS IN 1827 IN A COAL-PIT (KILN) ON THE FARM PROPERTY. THEY WERE FOUND NOT GUILTY AND THE FAMILY LATER SUCCEEDED IN FINDING JESSE MASTERS ALIVE AND LIVING IN NEW YORK STATE IN 1830.

DANIEL'S ELDEST SON JAMES F. YOUNG IS BURIED HERE.


The following 2 plaques were sent in by Shirley Passmore

PLAQUE #2


Location: Wilson Street East, Ancaster, Ontario - just north of #349

THE BLOODY ASSIZE - 1814

During the war of 1812 marauding bands of renegade settlers, many of whom had defected to the United States from the Niagara and London Districts were active in Southwestern Upper Canada. A number were captured and in May 1814 nineteen prisoners were indicted for High Treason. A special court was authorized to sit at Ancaster and the acting attorney general John Beverly Robinson instructed to prosecute. The trials were conducted by Chief Justice Thomas Scott and Puisné Judges William Dummer Powell and William Campbell. Fifteen were condemned to death as traitors. On July 20, 1814, eight were executed at Burlington heights and the remainder sentenced to exile. These trials became known as the Bloody Assize.

Architectural and Historical Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #3


Location: Battlefield Park, King St. & H/Way # 20, Stoney Creek

BATTLE OF STONEY CREEK 1813

On June 5, 1813, an invading United States army of about 3,000 men, commanded by Brigadier - General John Chandler, camped in this vicinity. That evening some 700 British regulars of the 8th and 49th Regiments, under the command of Lieutenant - Colonel John Harvey, left their encampment on Burlington Heights to attack the enemy. The assault was launched early the following morning under cover of darkness. In the fierce fighting which followed, heavy losses were suffered on both sides, but the Americans were defeated and withdrew after their senior officers, Brigadier - Generals Chandler and Winder, were captured. This victory is credited with preventing Upper Canada from being overrun in 1813.

Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

The following 6 plaques were sent in by Debbie Gerow

PLAQUE #4


Location: in the front of Woodlands Park on Barton
Street Between Sanford and Wellington

CITY OF HAMILTON

ROBERT LAND

1738-1818

HAMILTON PIONEER

Robert Land settled near this site as early as 1748, as a refugee of the American Revolution. A Pennsylvania magistrate and farmer, Land joined Joseph Brant's Volunteers as a courier, scout and Loyalist recruiter, Captured and sentenced to death for treason by an American Military Court in 1779, he escaped and narrowly avoided recapture in a bloody ambush the following year.
Burned out by the American Patriots during the war his family fled to New York city where the youngest Land child died at the age of three, The eldest son John, was captured by patriots and spent the war in jail. Another son, Abel survived an Indian gauntlet.
Land's wife Phoebe 1733-1826, and family were evacuated to New Brunswick at war's end while Land was stationed at Fort Niagara. By 1791 the family was reunited at the Head-of- the-lake-. Their loyalist land grants would eventually total more than 1000 acres and included all the area between Wellington Street and Sherman Avenue, from the mountain to the Bay.
Land farmed, fished, hunted, and worked as a wood turner. The log cabin he built is close to this site and was replaced after his death by a two storey brick residence built by his family called LANDHOLME, which survived until 1928.
Robert Land is buried at Hamilton Cemetery.

PLAQUE #5


Location: corner of Sanford and Barton in Woodlands Park

ALLAN STUDHOLME

1846-1919

The first independent labour representative elected to the Ontario legislature, Studholme was born near Birmingham, England. He emigrated to Canada in 1870, eventually settling in Hamilton. A skilled stove-mounter, Studholme became actively involved in the emerging trade union movement. In 1906, in the wake of the bitter Hamilton Street Railway strike, he ran as an independent working-class candidate in Hamilton East. Victorious in this and three subsequent elections, he sat as the lone labour representative in the legislature for almost thirteen years. Despite his political isolation, Studholme worked tirelessly to promote the interests of working-class men and women and, through his principled stands, he help popularize such major reforms as the eight hour day, workmen's compensation the minium wage and women's suffrage.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Communications

PLAQUE #6


Location: Main Foyer City Hall, 71 Main St. N., Hamilton

WILLIAM SHERRING 1877 - 1964

One of Canada's greatest Marathon runners, "Billy" Sherring was born in Hamilton and began his athletic career as a member of the YMCA Boys Club. He entered many county fair races and in 1897 gained his first major success at Bartonville. Two years later he recorded the first of two victories in the Around-the Bay Marathon one of the oldest long distance road races in North America now known as the Billy Sherring Memorial Road Race. His most memorable triumph however was the victory which earned him an Olympic gold medal in Athens on May 1, 1906. In a remarkable display of stamina he defeated some 55 competitors over the grueling 26-mile course.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Recreation

PLAQUE #7


Location: 70 James St. S., Hamilton

ST. PAUL'S PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH

Begun in 1854 and completed 3 years later, this Presbyterian church was designed in the Gothic Revival Style by architect William Thomas. The elegant eighty foot spire set atop a hundred foot tower marks the building as an outstanding example of Canadian Victorian Church architecture, despite the subsequent enlargement of the chancel, the original quality of the original form of the central pulpit, gallery and pews. Named St. Andrews when the first minister, the Rev. Alexander Gale, took office in 1833 the congregation originally held services in the court house and later in a small frame building on this site. In 1874 its name was changed to St. Paul's

Erected by the Archaeological and Historic Sites Board
Department of Public Records and Archives of Ontario

PLAQUE #8


Location: 41 Jackson St. W., Hamilton

WHITEHERN

This stately mansion is a finely crafted and well preserved example of Hamilton's early stone architecture. Built no later than 1850 for city clerk and attorney Richard Duggan, it was purchased in 1852 by Calvin McQuesten, M.D. (1801-85), a prosperous manufacturer and philanthropist. Following his death, McQuesten's descendants occupied Whitehern until 1968 when it was bequeathed to the City of Hamilton for use as a public Museum.

The home's interior displays family possessions dating from three centuries and various styles of decor popular between 1860 and 1930. Despite changes dictated by the time and fashion the house and grounds retain much of their original appearance.


Ontario Heritage Foundation
an agency of the Government of Ontario

PLAQUE #9


Location: 55 Main St., Hamilton

UNIFIED FAMILY COURT

Judicial District of Hamilton-Wentworth originally constructed in 1913 by philanthropist Andre Carnegie this building served as Hamilton's main public library for 67 years. Completely refurbished to house the Unified Family Court, it was officially opened on April 7, 1989

The Honourable Ian Scott Attorney General of Ontario
The Honourable Richard Patten Minister of Government Services
The Honourable Lily Oddie Munro Minister of Culture and Communications MPP Hamilton Centre


The following 13 plaques were sent in by Buddy Andres,
General Manager for Parks Canada, Niagara Region

PLAQUE #10


Location: at Harvey Park, next to Dundurn Castle, Hamilton

BURLINGTON HEIGHTS

1813 - 1814


Here in June, 1813, General John Vincent assembled troops that made the successful night attack on the invaders at Stoney Creek. From this point of vantage, in December, 1813, the force which retook Fort George and carried Fort Niagara by assault, began its march. On these heights stood the strong point of reserve and depot of arms for the defence of the Niagara Peninsula and support of the navy on Lake Ontario.

Ici, en juin 1813, le général John Vincent rassembla les troupes qui menèrent à bien l'attaque de nuit contre l'envahisseur à Stoney Creek. C'est d'ici que partirent, en décembre 1813, les forces qui reprirent le fort George et emportèrent d'assaut le fort Niagara. Sur ces hauteurs se trouvaient le gros des réserves et le dépôt d'armes qui assuraient la défense de la péninsule du Niagara et le soutien des troupes navales en service sur le lac Ontario.


Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #11


Location: on H-Way #99, Governor's Rd., just west of Dundas
in front of Highland Secondary School

DUNDAS STREET

LA RUE DUNDAS

Dundas Street, named for Henry Dundas, Secretary of State for the British Home Department (1791-1794), was built on Lieutenant Governor Simcoe's orders in 1793-1794. The road, cut by a party of Queen's Rangers from Burlington Bay to the upper forks, a navigable point on the Thames River, was part of a land and water communications system linking Detroit and Montréal. The road also connected the site of Simcoe's proposed capital, London, 16 miles downstream, with the larger network. While Simcoe's primary consideration was military, Dundas Street also helped to open the region for settlement.

La rue Dundas, du nom de Henry Dundas, secrétaire d'État du ministère de l'Intérieur britannique (1791-1794), a été construite sur les ordres du lieutenant-gouverneur Simcoe en 1793-1794. Construite par les Queen's Rangers, de la baie Burlington aux hautes fourches, point navigable sur la rivière Thames, la route faisait partie d'un réseau terrestre et maritime reliant Détroit et Montréal. Elle reliait aussi au réseau le site proposé par Simcoe comme capitale, London, seize milles en aval. Pensée d'abord pour des fins militaires, la rue Dundas a également favorisé la colonisation de la région.


Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #12


Location: at the corner of Duke & McNab St., Hamilton

SANDYFORD PLACE
Built about 1856, at a time of rapid growth in Hamilton, Sandyford Place is a fine example of the housing then being erected for the merchants of the period. It is a rare survivor in Canada of the few row houses built for affluent citizens in the mid-nineteenth century. The exterior design of pleasing proportions features a pavillion plan that helps to break the uniformity of such a long facade. The competent handling of the stonework, ranging from the pick-faced dressing of the front wall to the Renaissance details of the window and door heads, suggest the work of Scottish masons in Ontario.

Érigée vers 1856, Sandyford Place représente bien le genre de maisons construites pour les commerçants, alors que Hamilton était en pleine expansion. Cet ensemble constitue l'un des rares exemples de maisons en rangée construites pour les citoyens assez fortunés de l'époque. La façade se distingue par des proportions bien établies et par une série de pavillions qui rompent l'uniformité de la longue masse du bâtiment. Le traitement soigné de la pierre piquée et le style néo-Renaissance des chambranles des fenêtres laissent supposer que des maçons écossais ont travaillé en Ontario.


Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #13


Location: at Waterworks Park, Hamilton (visable from the Q.E.W.)

THE HAMILTON WATERWORKS
This dignified building, reminiscent of the style of a Roman aqueduct, houses one of Canada's greatest surviving engineering achievements of the mid-19th century, the Hamilton Waterworks. Built between 1857 and 1859, it was designed by the prominent Canadian engineer, Thomas C. Keefer. Its grand interior, dominated by giant cast iron doric columns, houses steam engines cast by the nearby Dundas foundry. The pumphouse produced as many as five million gallons of water daily until 1910, when increasing demand and improved technology forced its retirement.

LA STATION DE POMPAGE
DE HAMILTON

Ce bâtiment simple et sobre, Inspiré du style de l'aqueduc romain, abrite l'un des derniers chefs-d'oeuvre techniques du milieu du XIXe siècle qui subsistent encore au Canada. II a été construit entre 1857 et 1859, selon les plans du célèbre ingénieur Thomas C. Keefer. L'intérieur imposant, dominé par des colonnes doriques géantes de fonte, renferme des machines à vapeur coulées par la fonderie de Dundas. En 1910, la station, qui pompait pourtant jusqu'à 5 millions de gallons d'eau potable par jour, a dû fermer à cause de la demande croissante et du progrès de la technologie.


Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #14


Location: on York Blvd., Hamilton

DUNDURN CASTLE

LE CHATEAU DUNDURN

This villa was completed in 1835 for Allan Napier MacNab. Incorporating an existing farmhouse, it was designed by the local architect, Robert Wetherell, as a statement of its owner's place in Hamilton society. The house features an eclectic blend of classical and Italianate motifs, French windows, broad verandahs and a panoramic view of Burlington Bay. With its outbuildings and grounds, Dundurn Castle stands as an important example of the Picturesque Movement in Canada. After years in private hands, the property was purchased by the city and from 1964 to 1967 restored to its former splendour.

Achevée en 1835, cette villa fut construite pour Allan Napier MacNab. Pour son concepteur, Robert Wetherell, elle devait témoigner du statut social de son propriétaire. Incorporant une ancienne maison de ferme, elle affiche un amalgame éclectique de lignes classiques et de motifs à l'italienne, des portes-fenêtres, de grandes vérandas, et offre une vue splendide sur la baie. Avec ses dépendances et ses parcs, elle constitue un important exemple du style pittoresque au Canada. Résidence privé pendant de nombreuses années, elle a été achetée par la ville de Hamilton, qui l'a restaurée de 1964 à 1967.


Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #15


Location: at Dundurn Castle, York Blvd., Hamilton

SIR ALLAN NAPIER MACNAB

1798 - 1862

Politician, businessman, land speculator and soldier, Allan MacNab enjoyed a very public life. He was a successful lawyer and was appointed Upper Canada's first Queen's Counsel. In 1838 he was knighted for his role in suppressing the rebellion in Upper Canada. The profits from his extensive land speculation were fed into a variety of projects, including construction of his monument, Dundurn. He was influential in establishing the Gore Bank and in promoting the Great Western Railway. During a political career spanning three decades, he was three times Speaker and, from 1854 to 1856, Premier.

Homme politique, homme d'affaires, spéculateur foncier, officier militaire et avocat, Allan MacNab eut une longue vie publique. Premier conseiller de la reine au Haut-Canada, il fut créé chevalier en 1838, en récompense de son rôle répressif lors de la Rébellion. Il contribua à l'établissement de la Gore Bank et du Great Western Railway. Il investit les profits de ses spéculations dans divers projets dont la construction de ce château, Dundurn, qui devait prolonger sa mémoire. Au cours de ses quelque 30 ans de carrière politique, il fut président de la Chambre à trois reprises et premier ministre de 1854 à 1856.


Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #16


Location: at Battlefield Park, Stoney Creek

BATTLE OF STONEY CREEK

LA BATAILLE DE STONEY CREEK

During 1813 the Americans planned to invade Upper Canada from Detroit and the Niagara Peninsula. In late May, an American force crossed the Niagara River, seized Fort George, and with about 3500 troops moved inland in pursuit of the British who retreated to Burlington Heights. At Stoney Creek, a surprise night attack by about 700 regulars of the 8th and 49th Regiments of Foot under Lt.-Col. John Harvey halted the American advance and allowed the British to re-establish their position on the Niagara frontier. The Americans retreated to Forty Mile Creek and subsequently to Fort George.

Vers la fin mai, 1813, des forces américaines traversèrent le Niagara, prirent le fort George et fortes d'environ 3500 hommes, pourchassèrent à l'intérieur du pays les Britanniques qui battaient en retraite en direction de Burlington Heights. A Stoney Creek, grâce à une attaque surprise de nuit, quelque 700 réguliers des 8e et 49e régiments d'infanterie, sous les ordres du lieutenant-colonel John Harvey, arrêtèrent l'avance américaine et permirent aux Britanniques de reprendre leur position à la frontière du Niagara. Les Américains se replièrent sur Forty Mile Creek et par la suite sur le fort George.


Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #17


Location: at Battlefield Park, Stoney Creek

THEIR FAME LIVETH

CANADA REMEMBERS

LIEUTENANT SAMUEL HOOKER,
SERGEANT JOSEPH HUNT, PRI-
VATES JAMES DAIG, THOMAS
FEARNSIDES, RICHARD HUGILL,
GEORGE LONGLEY, LAURENCE
MEADE, JOHN PEGLER, JOHN SMITH,
AND JOHN WALE OF THE FIRST
BATTALION OF THE EIGHTH
(KING'S) REGIMENT OF FOOT; AND
SERGEANT CHARLES PAGE, PRI-
VATES JAMES ADAMS, ALEXANDER
BROWN, MICHAEL BURKE, HENRY
CARROLL, NATHANIEL CATLIN,
MARTIN CURLEY, MARTIN DON-
NOLLY, PETER HENLEY, JOHN
HOSTLER, EDWARD KILLORAN,
EDWARD LITTLE, PATRICK MARTIN,
AND JOHN MAXWELL OF THE
FORTY-NINTH REGIMENT OF
FOOT, KILLED IN ACTION HERE.
6TH JUNE, 1813.

HISTORIC SITES AND MONUMENTS
BOARD OF CANADA

A.D. 1940


PLAQUE #18


Location: on Jackson St. (behind City Hall), Hamilton

WHITEHERN
Set in a rare walled garden and enriched by its interior decoration, Whitehern is a remarkably intact example of mid-19th century residential architecture. The lingering influence of the Palladian style combined with Neoclassical motifs is seen most clearly in the symmetrical facade with its central frontispiece capped by a pediment, and in the sturdy yet graceful entrance porch supported by lonic columns. Constructed about 1850, this house built of locally quarried stone reflected the affluence and status of the new business and professional elites emerging in pre-Confederation Canada.

Entourée d'un exceptionnel jardin muré, Whitehern offre un exemple remarquablement intact d'habitation du milieu du XIXe siècle. L'empreinte du style palladien, auquel s'allient des motifs néo-classiques, est particulièrement manifeste dans la façade symétrique, dont le frontispice central est couronné d'un fronton, et dans le porche à la fois solide et élégant qui s'appuie sur des colonnes loniques. Construite vers 1850, cette maison de pierre locale, avec son riche décor intérieur, témoigne de l'opulence et du statut des élites commerçante et professionnelle qui se formaient au Canada peu avant la Confédération.


Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #19


Location: on James St. S., Hamilton

ST. PAUL'S
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
Erected in 1854-1857, St. Paul's (formerly St. Andrew's) is an elegant example of the Gothic Revival style. The design of the chuch shows the influence of the Ecclesiological Movement which favoured plans based on English medieval parish churches. Architect William Thomas's use of historically correct ornament, superb interior woodwork, side porches and a tower with a striking stone spire also reflects such models. Except for the later deepening of the chancel, and the addition of clerestory and stained-glass windows, St. Paul's has survived with relatively little alteration.

L'ÉGLISE PRESBYTÉRIENNE
ST. PAUL

Construite entre 1854 et 1857, l'église St. Paul (autrefois St. Anndrew) est un élégant bâtiment néo-gothique. Son plan, dessiné par l'architecte William Thomas, dénote I'influence du mouvement ecclésiologique anglican, axé sur le style des églises paroissiales de l'Angleterre médiévale. Son omementation historiquement authentique, ses superbes boiseries, ses porches latéraux et sa tour surmontée d'une impressionnate flèche en pierre sont typiques de ce style. Exception faite de l'agrandissement duæur et de l'ajout d'une claire-voie et de vitraux, elle est restée remarquablement intacte.


Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #20


Location: at 680 Plains Rd. W., Burlington

ROYAL BOTANICAL GARDENS
This important botancial garden is distinguished by its first class horticultural collection. Originating in the late 1920s, it developed as a series of discrete gardens and a wildlife conservation area within an urban context. Some of Canada's most talented landscape architects, botanists and plant curators have collaborated on the garden, imparting an overall unity and aesthetic appeal. In 1975, the Royal Botannical Gardens was designated the International Registration Authority for the names of cultivated lilacs in honour of its world-renowned lilac collection.

LES JARDINS
BOTANIQUES ROYAUX

Une collection horticole de premier ordre distingue cet important jardin botanique. Créé à la fin des années 1920, il se compose maintenant d'une série de jardins distincts et d'une aire de conservation de la faune s'insérant dans un contexte urbain. Certains des mellieurs architectes paysaygers, botanistes et conservateurs de plantes du Canada ont collaboré pour en assurer l'unité d'ensemble et la qualité esthétique. En 1975, sa collection de lilas, de réputation mondiale, lui a valu d'être reconnu comme l'autorité internationale d'enregistrement des noms des lilas cultivés.


Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #21


Location: on Stuart St., Hamilton

HAMILTON CUSTOMS HOUSE
The former Customs House (1858-1860) is a fine example of the Italianate style of architecture which was popular in Canada from the 1840s through the 1870s. Inspired by Renaissance palazzi of Rome and Florence, Italianate buildings were characterized by an elevated first story of rusticated stone, a smooth upper story, abundant classical detailing and a heavy cornice. Th design of the Customs House is enhanced by the variety of finishes and the superior quality of its stoneworl. Its construction reflected the rise of Hamilton as a major railway centre and Great Lakes port.

MAISON DE LA DOUANE DE HAMILTON

L'ancienne Maison de la douane (1858-1860) est un bel exemple du style à I'italienne qui fut populaire au Canada au cours des années 1840 à 1870. Inspirées des palais de la Renaissance italienne à Rome et à Florence, les édifices à I'talienne se caractérisaient par un rez-de-chaussée de pierres rustiquées, un étage au parement lisse et une abondante ornementation classique, le tout chapeauté par une corniche proéminente. La Maison de la douane se distingue par ses différents types de finition et la qualité supérieure de sa maçonnerie. Elle témoigne de l'essor de Hamilton coome port des Grands Lacs et centre ferroviaire d'importance nationale.


Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #22


Location: at 360 James St., now known as
"Liuna Station Banquet & Convention Centre", Hamilton

HAMILTON CN STATION
This building recalls the importance of the
railway to the development of Canada's
industrial cities. Completed in 1931, it
combines a strong classical design with a fluid
circulation plan, making it one of the best
urban stations of the interwar years. Its temple
facade and the spacious plaza are
manifestations of the City Beautiful movement
which marked this period. Strategically
located, the station served a community whose
fortunes relied heavily on the business and
service of the railway. After the Second World
War, it became an important gateway for
immigrants to Canada.

LA GARE DU CN DE HAMILTON

Cet édifice achevé en 1931 rappelle l'importance
du chemin de fer dans le d'éveloppement des villes
industrielles au Canada. Sa composition
classique et son plan efficace en firent l'une des
meilleures gares de l'entre-deux-guerres.
Dominée par le motif du temple antique, sa
façade orne un grande place selon les préceptes
d'embellissement urbain du mouvement City
Beautiful. L'emplacement de cette gare lui
permettait de bien répondre aux besoins d'une
économie étroitement liée aux services
ferroviaires. Après la Seconde Guerre mondiale,
elle devint pour les immigrants une importante
porte d'entrée au pays.


Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

The next plaque was sent in by the McRae Family;
Tom, Cathy, Sarah, Daniel, Matthew, Alexander and Nick

PLAQUE #23


Location: Outside Gilmore Hall, McMaster University,
1280 Main Street West, Hamilton

McMASTER UNIVERSITY 1887
The Honourable WIlliam McMaster (1811-1887), a prominent banker and member of the first Senate of Canada, bequeathed funds which enable Baptists of Ontario and Quebec to found this university. Incorporated in 1887, it was the culmination of educational work sponsored for half a century by Canadian Baptists. Originally established in Toronto, the university was moved in 1930 to this site. Citizens of Hamilton made a gift of land and financed the science building, Hamilton Hall. In 1957 the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec relinquished ownership and control, although the denominational connection was continued through the incorporation and affiliation of McMaster Divinity College.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #24


Location: Royal Canadian Legion, Hamilton St., Waterdown

LIONEL BEAUMAURICE (LEO) CLARKE, V.C.

1892 - 1916

Born near Waterdown, Ontario, Leo Clarke moved to Winnipeg in 1903. He enlisted with the 27th Battalion, C.E.F. in February 1915 and transferred to the 2nd Canadian Battalion later that year. On September 9, 1916, on the Somme battlefront, though wounded, Corporal Clarke single-handedly defended a recently-won trench. Using a revolver and two captured rifles he repulsed an attack by two enemy officers and about twenty others, thus helping to secure the Canadian position. For his courageous action he recieved the British Empire's highest award for valour, the Victoria Cross. Before his award was announced, however, Corporal Clarke was killed in battle on October 19, 1916, and is buried near Le Havre, France.

Erected by the Archaeological and Historic Sites Board,
Department of Public Records and Archives of Ontario

The following plaque was sent in by Glen Johnson

PLAQUE #25


"A note on a tag says that 'age and disease took its toll on this living monument, and in 2001 it was vandalizes and burned.'
You can view a photo of this tree by clicking HERE.

DOUBLE - TRUNKED
GRAFTED SUGAR MAPLE

The plaque is erected to mark this
rare tree on the bank of the Chippewa
Creek. The tree was likely a
territorial marker of the Cayuga
Indian Band, according to Chief Robert
Mt. Pleasant, Tuscarora Band, Six
Nations, Ohsweken. It is over 150
years old, according to Dr. Peter
Rice, Royal Botanical Gardens. The
tree is 28.3m (78'1") tall with an
average crown spread of 15.5m (51').
It is on the honour roll of Ontario
trees, Ontario Forestry Association.

June 13, 1982

Erected by
the Township of Glanbrook L.A.C.A.C.
and Binbrook Historical Society
assisted by the
Ministry of Citizenship and Culture


The next 12 plaques were sent in by JoAnne Dymond and Bob Smith

PLAQUE #26


Location: 552 Ridge Rd., 5 kms east of H-Way 20, 2 kms from Stoney Creek
via New Mountain Rd.

FIRST WOMEN'S INSTITUTE 1897
The world's first Women's Institute was organized at Squire's Hall, Stoney Creek, in 1897. Erland Lee, a founder of the Farmer's Institute, assisted by his wife, arranged the meeting. About 100 women from the Saltfleet Township district attended and were persuaded by Mrs. Adelaide Hoodless to form an organization of their own to improve their skills in the arts of homemaking and child care. Here, in the Lee home, Mr. Lee subsequently helped to draft the constitution of the new society. Mrs. E.D. Smith of Winona became the first president of the "Mother Institute". The Women's Institutes movement has since become a world-wide organization.

Archeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #27


Location: 165 Charlton Ave. W., Hamilton

CENTRAL PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH

Erected to serve a thriving congregation established in 1841, Central Presbyterian Church was built in 1907-08 after an earlier building was destroyed by fire. It is reputedly the only church designed by renowned architect John M. Lyle, the Paris-trained son of the minister and one of Canada's leading exponents of the Beaux-Arts system of design. Georgian in form, the imposing building is symmetrical and well-proportioned. Its most distinctive features -- semi-circular stairwells at the ends of the transepts, an elegant, open arch tower and a tapering, octagonal spire-- offset the flat wall surfaces and create a striking profile. Although a Sunday School wing erected at the rear of the sanctuary has been altered, Central Presbyterian Church retains much of its original character.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Communications

PLAQUE #28


Location: York Blvd., Hamilton

THOMAS BAKER McQUESTEN, 1882-1948
An influential proponent of landscape improvement programs, McQuesten was raised here and educated at the University of Toronto and Osgoode Hall. He joined a Hamilton Law practice in 1909 and eleven years later was appointed to the city's Board of Parks Management. In this capacity and as Minister of Highways (1934-43) and Chairman of the Niagara Parks Commission (1934-44), McQuesten devoted himself to the development of parks and scenic parkways. He effectively combined attention to aesthetics with engineering requirements in the design of bridges and roads, including the Queen Elizabeth Way, that were constructed under his charge. McQuesten also actively promoted numerous beautification projects, the park lands along the Niagara River and the Royal Botanical Gardens nearby remaining today as the greatest legacies of his efforts.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Communications

PLAQUE #29


Location: Dundas Riding Park, Cross & Alma Sts., Dundas

THE FOUNDING OF DUNDAS

In 1793 Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe authorized a townplot in this vicinity at the then eastern terminus of Dundas Street. It original name, "Coote's Paradise", was derived from that of the adjoining marsh, a haunt of waterfowl, and the favorite hunting ground of a Captain Thomas Coote. West of the townplot mills were built, which became the nucleus of a community known by 1801 as "Dundas Mills". The community's location at the head of navigation on Lake Ontario attracted settlers. About 1808 streets were laid out by Richard Hatt and William Hare. The village's growth was futher stimulated by the completion in 1837 of the Desjardins Canal, and the Town of Dundas was incorporated in 1847.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Recreation

PLAQUE #30


Location: 60 Main St., Dundas

THE DUNDAS TOWN HALL

Dundas was incorporated as a town in 1847 by a special Act of the legislature of the Province of Canada. The following year the town counicl accepted a tender from a local builder, James Scott, to erect a stone town hall and voted £2000 to cover the cost. Designed in a version of Roman Classic, by Francis Hawkins of Dundas, the building was completed by July, 1849, and was said to have cost £2500. Except for a small italianate wing added later, the exterior has been little altered, although a thorough renovation was carried out in 1946. It is one of the most handsome, pre-1850, municipal buildings surviving in Ontario.

Erected by the Archeological and Historic Sites Board,
Department of Records and Archives of Ontario

PLAQUE #31


Location: House of Providence, Governor's Rd. & Ogilvie St., Dundas

"DUNDAS MILLS"

By 1799 the Morden family had a sawmill near this site on Spencer Creek north of Dundas Street. They sold this property in 1800 to Edward Peer who built a grist-mill about 300 yards south-east, close to Dundas Street, and adopted the name "Dundas Mills". Peer sold the property in 1804 to Richard and Samuel Hatt and a partner, but by 1807 Richard had become sole owner. Then or slightly earlier, Richard Hatt built north-west of Peer's grist-mill the tall stone flour mill which stood near this site until 1968. The other mills were destroyed long before. The community of "Dundas Mills" became part of the town of Dundas in 1847.

Erected by the Archeological and Historic Sites Board,
Department of Records and Archives of Ontario

PLAQUE #32


Location: Desjardins Centennial Park, East St., Dundas

THE DESJARDINS CANAL

In pioneer days waterways provided the essential means of transportation. Dundas, located at the head of navigation on Lake Ontario and the eastern terminus of the "Governor's Road", was thus in a favoured position. However, in 1823 the government authorized the construction of a canal for larger vessels through Burlington sand-bar. Since its completion would make the shallow approach through Coote's Paradise marsh inadequate, Pierre Desjardins, an enterprising settler from France, formed a company in 1826 to build a canal there. Opened in 1837, it contributed greatly to the development of this region until the completion of the Great Western Railway in 1853, when the Desjardins Canal gradually fell into disuse.

Erected by the Ontario Archeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #33


Location: 252 James St. N., Hamilton

CHRIST'S CHURCH CATHEDRAL

An important ecclesiastical centre for the Niagara Peninsula, Christ Church was erected in stages, its form altered as the size and prominence of the congregation increased. Begun in 1835 as a parish church, the frame building was expanded in 1852-54 with the addition of a stone chancel and nave extension designed by the renowned Toronto architect William Thomas. The pesent nave, fashioned by Henry Langley, a specialist in church architecture noted for his masterly High Victorian Gothic designs, was completed in 1876, a year after Christ's Church was designated the cathedral for the newly-formed Diocese of Niagara. Although the building has undergone various alterations and renovations since then, notably the extension of the chancel in 1924-25 it retains its handsome 19th-century character.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Citizenship and Culture

PLAQUE #34


Location: Former Home now Liuna Gardens, 526 Winona Rd. N., Stoney Creek

JOHN WILLSON 1776 - 1860

The dominant politician at the Head-of-the-Lake during the early 19th century, Willson was born in New Jersey. He came to Upper Canada and settled here about 1797. After his election to the Legislative Assembly in 1809, he embarked on a political career that, with only occasional interruptions, spanned over three decades. A passionate advocate of religious and civil liberties and an ardent spokesman for farmers, Willson championed moderate constitutional reform, public support for universal elementary education and economic development. At the height of his influence he served as Speaker of the Assembly (1825-28), presiding over one of Upper Canada's most important parliaments. In 1839 Willson was appointed to the Legislative Council, but he retired within two years to his Saltfleet Township farm.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Citizenship and Culture

PLAQUE #35


Location: in Harvey Park, York Blvd., near Dundurn St., Hamilton

SIR JOHN HARVEY
1778 - 1852

From these heights, Lieutenant-Colonel John Harvey set out with about 700 men on the night of June 5, 1813, to launch a surprise attack on an invading United States force of some 3,000 men camped at Stoney Creek. His rout of the troops commanded by Brigadier-General John Chandler under cover of darkness in the early hours of June 6, is generally credited with saving Upper Canada from being overrun by the enemy. Harvey was knighted in 1834, served as Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick 1834-41, Governor of Newfoundland, 1841-46, and Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia, 1846-51.

Erected by the Ontario Archeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #36


The Armoury, James St. N., Hamilton

THE LIEUTENANT-COLONEL

JOHN WEIR FOOTE, VC, CD ARMOURY

This armoury is dedicated to the memory of
Lieutenant-Colonel John Weir Foote, VC, CD,
Padre of the Royal Hamilton Light Infantry.
Padre Foote was awarded the Victoria Cross
for valour during the raid on Dieppe on
19 August, 1942. Without thought for his
personal safety, Padre Foote chose to
remain with the prisoners of war to give
physical and spiritual comfort to the
wounded and dying men of his own and
sister regiments.

PLAQUE #37


Location: York Street by the Royal Botanical Gardens

IN LASTING MEMORY
OF THE
UNITED EMPIRE
LOYALISTS

Who preferred to remain British
subjects and came to Canada
in large numbers immediately
following the American Revolution
of 1776 and the signing of the
Treaty of Peace in 1783
_________________

On this site in 1785 was erected
one of the first log houses in this
District by a Loyalist pioneer Col.
Richard Beasley who on June 11th
and 12th 1796 here entertained
Lieut. Colonel John Graves Simcoe
the first Lieutenant-Governor of
Upper Canada and Mrs. Simcoe

_________________

Unveiled July 1, 1927 the Diamond Jubilee
of the Confederation of the Provinces
of Canada on July 1, 1867

PLAQUE #38


Location: On the wall of the Armouries on the east side of James Street North just north of Cannon Street, Hamilton

ACTING SERGEANT JOHN RENNIE, G.C. 1919-1943
"Jock" Rennie was awarded the George Cross posthumously in May 1944 for an instinctive, selfless act of heroism. Born in Aberdeen, Scotland, he came to Ontario with his family as a child and grew up in Kitchener. Rennie enlisted in The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders of Canada (Princess Louise's) at Hamilton in July 1940, and went overseas with them to England in the summer of 1943. On October 29, 1943, he was supervising a grenade-throwing exercise near Riddlesworth when a live grenade fell back into the trench. Rennie pushed one of his men aside and tried to throw the grenade clear. At that moment it exploded. His body shielded others from harm, but he died of his injuries.

Ontario Heritage Foundation, Ministry of Culture and Communication

PLAQUE #39


Location: On the SE corner of Reno Avenue and Palmer Road, 1 block south of Mohawk Road East,
1 block east of Upper Gage Avenue, Hamilton

"BOBBY" KERR 1882-1963
Born in Ireland, Kerr came to Canada in 1887 with his parents who settled in Hamilton two years later. He earned civic recognition at the 1902 Coronation Games where he won sprint and middle distance races. His exceptionally quick start placed him in the forefront of Canadian sprinters and in 1907 he won some 40 events. His greatest feats, however, were accomplished in 1908 when he won the 100 and 200 yards at the British Championships and gave Canada a gold medal with a memorable victory in the 200-metre event at the Olympic Games in London. He remained active in international competition for 25 years serving as Captain of the Olympic track team (1928) and manager of the track and field division (1932).

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation, Ministry of Recreation and Culture

PLAQUE #40


Location: Beside the canal under the canal bridge via the turnoff,
at the east end of the bridge on the south side, Hamilton

BURLINGTON BAY CANAL
The first public work undertaken with the financial backing of the provincial government, Burlington Bay Canal was proposed as one of a series of waterways to provide uninterrupted navigation from Lake Erie to the Atlantic Ocean, it was also championed by area residents as a means of rendering Burlington Bay a usable harbour. In 1823, at the urging of Hamilton merchant James Crooks, the House of Assembly authorized the construction of the canal. Work began the following year and, although not yet finished, the waterway was officially opened by Lieutenant Governor Sir Peregrine Maitland on July 1, 1826. Following delays caused by technical difficulties, Burlington Bay Canal was finally completed in 1832, thereby ensuring Hamilton's rapid development as the commercial centre at the Head of the Lake.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation, Ministry of Culture and Communications

PLAQUE #41


Location: On the SE corner of Claremont Drive and Arcade Crescent,
2 blocks west of Upper James Street, Hamilton

"CLAREMONT LODGE" AND "AUCHMAR", 1855
This gate lodge was built for the Hon. Isaac Buchannan (1810-1883) who was born in Glasgow. He emigrated to Toronto in 1830, became a successful wholesale merchant, represented Toronto in the first Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada, 1841-44, and moved to Hamilton about 1850. He bought property here, named it the Clarement Estate in 1852, and in 1855 built the lodge and the main house, now located at 88 Fennell West. Buchanan subdivided the estate and renamed the main house "Auchmar" after the Buchanan estate on Loch Lomond, Scotland. He became Member for Hamilton, 1857-67, and served as President of the Executive Council in the 1864 Tache-Macdonald administration. He died in Hamilton in 1883.

Erected by the Archaeological and Historic Sites Board,
Department of Public Records and Archives of Ontario

PLAQUE #42


Location: In front of Dundurn Castle in Dundurn Park at the intersection of
York Boulevard and Dundurn Street North, Hamilton

DUNDURN CASTLE
1832
This mansion was built 1832 - 35 by Allan Napier MacNab (1798-1862) and named after the family ancestral seat in Scotland. Enlisting at fifteen, MacNab distinguished himself by his bravery in the War of 1812. He subsequently entered politics and was noted for his support of the Family Compact. During the Rebellion of 1837 he was one of the government's most active military supporters and was knighted for his services. Leader of the Tory-Conservatives, MacNab was speaker of the Legislative Assembly on several occasions and Prime Minister of Canada 1854-56.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #43


Location: In front of the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum just to the east of Hamilton's airport,
on the north side of Airport Road just west of Upper James Street, Hamilton

EILEEN VOLLICK 1908-1968
Canada's first licensed woman pilot, Eileen Vollick was born in Wiarton and came to Hamilton about 1911. She was fascinated by aviation and in 1927 enrolled in the flying school established near her home on Hamilton Bay by Jack V. Elliot, a Hamilton businessman and pioneer in Canadian commercial aviation. The spirited Eileen Vollick devoted her spare time to flying and soon mastered the school's Curtiss JN-4 training aircraft. On March 13, 1928, she passed the federal aviation test and nine days later she was issued a private pilot's certificate. This significant achievement opened Canadian aviation to women and many became licensed pilots, and participants in various airshows and special flights throughout Canada. From 1929 Eileen Vollick lived in New York where she died.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation, Ministry of Culture and Recreation

PLAQUE #44


Location: On Main Street East on the south side just west of John Street South, Hamilton

GEORGE HAMILTON 1787-1836
Born at Queenston, George Hamilton was the son of a prosperous merchant, the Hon. Robert Hamilton. He followed his father's career as a merchant in the Niagara District until the War of 1812, in which he served as a Captain of Light Dragoons. In 1815 Hamilton acquired land here at the Head of the Lake, laid out a village plot, and sold lots. When the settlement was chosen as the administrative centre of the Gore District in 1816, he gave land for a court-house square. A reformer in Politics, George Hamilton, was a member of the Assembly for this area from 1821 to 1830. The settlement which Hamilton laid out was named in his honour, and became a Police Village in 1833.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation, Ministry of Culture and Recreation

PLAQUE #45


Location: On the SE corner of Hunter Street West and Bay Street South, Hamilton

HAMILTON CENTRAL PUBLIC SCHOOL
This school, built to accommodate 1,000 students, was the largest graded school in Upper Canada, and became the only public school in Hamilton, at the time of its opening in 1853. Among the earliest examples of an institution inspired by the reforms of Egerton Ryerson, the province's chief superintendent of education (1844-1876), it incorporated his scheme of an integrated, rational, and graduated public education system based upon a central school and primary feeders. The building's original finely proportioned Classical design, by the firm of Cumberland and Ridout, was extensively remodelled in 1890 by the Hamilton architect, James Balfour. His alterations, including a steeply pitched roof, certain round-arched windows and a heightened central tower, created an edifice in conformity with late Victorian tastes.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation, Ministry of Culture and Recreation

PLAQUE #46


Location: On the north side of Mountain Park Avenue just east of Upper Wentworth Street,
2 blocks north of Concession Street, Hamilton

HORATIO GEORGE SUMMERS
1865-1941
Comedian, actor and theatrical manager, George Summers established the Mountain park Theatre here in 1902. It was one of the earliest theatres of its kind in Ontario. For twelve successful seasons, "Geo. H. Summers Theatrical Enterprises" performed in Hamilton in the summer and toured during the winter. Most of the repertoire was popular melodrama, much of it written by Summers himself. On stage, he was particularly renowned for his portrayal of Rip Van Winkle. After fire destroyed the theatre in December 1914, Summers pursued an acting career in Canada and the United States. He later wrote articles on the history of theatre in Ontario and scripted comic sketches for the CBC.

Ontario Heritage Foundation, Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Recreation

PLAQUE #47


Location: On the wall of the Armouries on the east side of James Street North
just north of Cannon Street, Hamilton

LIEUTENANT CHARLES DAVIDSON DUNBAR, D.C.M.
1870-1939
An internationally renowned piper, Dunbar was born in Halkirk, Scotland. In 1886 he joined the British Army, embarking upon a distinguished career as a military piper. During the Boer War, Dunbar was wounded while piping troops into battle. For his gallantry he was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal. In 1911 he emigrated to Hamilton where he soon joined the 91st (later the Argyll and Sutherland) Highlanders. As pipe-major of the 19th Battalion, he saw action during the First World War. Widely respected for his devotion to duty and gentlemanly demeanour and acclaimed as a musician and bandsman, Dunbar received many honours. Unique among them was his appointment as lieutenant in 1917, the first pipe-major to become a pipe-officer in the history of Canadian and British forces.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Citizenship and Culture

PLAQUE #48


Location: On the SE corner of Park Street and Sheaffe Street 1 block east of Bay Street North, Hamilton

ST. MARY'S PRO-CATHEDRAL
One of the few Roman Catholic churches in Ontario retaining its pre-Confederation character, St. Mary's was erected in 1859-60 during the episcopate of Bishop John Farrell to replace a building destroyed by fire. It was designed by Frederick Kortum, a German-born architect who died before the church was completed, and was built with volunteer labour provided by parishioners. Gothic Revival in style, the imposing structure is distinguished by its massive bell tower and stone trim. The church's most impressive feature, however, is its magnificent interior with elaborately-carved high alter fashioned by Montreal architect Zepherin Perrault and fine stained-glass windows made in Bavaria. The seat of the Bishop of Hamilton until 1927, St. Mary's now serves as a substitute cathedral for the diocese.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Citizenship and Culture

PLAQUE #49


Location: On the north side of York Boulevard about halfway between Dundurn Street North
and the Thomas B. McQuesten High Level Bridge, Hamilton

"THE BURLINGTON RACES" 1813
On the morning of September 28, 1813, a powerfully-armed United States fleet comprising ten ships under the command of Commodore Isaac Chauncey appeared off York (Toronto). The smaller British fleet of six vessels, commanded by Commodore Sir James L. Yeo, was in the harbour, but on the approach of the enemy set sail to attack. After a sharp engagement, the British squadron was forced to withdraw toward Burlington Bay where it could take refuge under the batteries on the adjacent heights. A close chase ensued, but by skilful seamanship, Yeo was able to bring his ships through the shallow channel in the sand-bar to the safety of this bay.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board,
Ministries of Colleges and Universities

PLAQUE #50


Location: In Ancaster, on Wilson Street East, south side, just west of Sulphur Springs Road, Hamilton

THE FOUNDING OF ANCASTER
In 1791 James Wilson in partnership with Richard Beasley built a sawmill and a grist-mill on the site of this community. The mills were sold to Jean Baptiste Rousseaux (known as St. John) in 1794 and developed into a thriving pioneer enterprise. The settlement which grew around these mills became an important trading community known by about 1800 as "Ancaster". In 1805 Samuel and Richard Hatt, who had built the "Red Mill" nearby in 1799, acquired extensive holdings in the vicinity, part of which they subdivided. The combined settlement grew rapidly and became a centre for water-powered industries until the end of the nineteenth century.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #51


Location: At the north edge of the parking lot at the north end of Highcliffe Avenue at Concession Street, Hamilton

THE NIAGARA ESCARPMENT
Hamilton Mountain is part of the Niagara Escarpment, a height of land extending 725 km across Ontario from Niagara Falls to Manitoulin Island. Over 430 million years ago, a tropical sea covered most of central North America. Sediments and coral reef on the seabed were compressed into dolomite, a hard type of limestone more resistant to erosion than the bedrock of adjacent lands. The cliffs of the escarpment are the exposed floor of the ancient sea. The escarpment's rugged terrain, home to a wide variety of plants and wildlife, forms a natural corridor through both urban and rural areas. In 1990, the United Nations designated the Niagara Escarpment a World Biosphere Reserve.

Ontario Heritage Foundation, Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Recreation

PLAQUE #52


Location: On the NW corner of King Street West and Locke Street North, Hamilton

THE NINE-HOUR MOVEMENT
In the mid-nineteenth century industrial workers laboured ten to twelve hours a day, six days a week. Inspired by British and American examples, Hamilton unionists launched a crusade for a shorter workday in January of 1872. The workingman, they argued, needed more time for family, leisure, education and civic life. Soon the Nine-Hour Movement had branches across central Canada. In Hamilton on May 15, thousands of union and non-union workers walked off the job. Cheered on by large crowds, they paraded through the city and staged a demonstration here at the Crystal Palace grounds. Resistance by employers ultimately defeated the movement, but workers learned the potential of large-scale mobilization and would eventually win a shorter workday.

Ontario Heritage Foundation, Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Recreation
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PLAQUE #53


Location: In Flamborough, at the bridge over the creek beside the old mill on the north side of
Crooks Hollow Road. From the intersection of Highways 8 and 5 (Peter's Corners) follow
Highway 8 east to West Flamborough then left onto Crooks Hollow Road.

UPPER CANADA'S FIRST PAPER MILL 1826
The province's first paper mill began operations in 1826. Situated about 150 yards downstream from here, it was owned by James Crook's (1786-1860), one of Upper Canada's most successful entrepreneurs. On four hundred acres of land purchased here in 1811, Crooks had, by 1822, erected a number of other mills, creating Crook's Hollow, one of the province's largest concentrations of industry. Construction of the paper mill was encouraged by an expanding domestic market and the British government's imposition in 1826 of a high tariff on paper imported to Canada from the United States. Crooks sold his paper mill in 1851, but under various owners it continued operations until destroyed by fire in 1875.

Erected by the Archaeological and Historic Sites Board,
Department of Public Records and Archives of Ontario

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