Historical Plaques of
Frontenac County

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The following plaque was sent in by Suzanne Schaller

PLAQUE #1


Location: St Marys Cemetery, Kingston.

THE TYPHUS EPIDEMIC 1847

Though typhus had been epidemic periodically in Canada since the 1650's, the worst outbreak occurred in the summer of 1847. In that year some 90,000 emigrants embarked for Canada, most of them refugees from the potato famine then ravaging Ireland. Nearly 16,000 died of typhus, either at sea or after their arrival in Canada. Those stricken while passing through Kingston found shelter in make-shift immigrant sheds erected near the waterfront. Despite the efforts of local religious and charitable organizations, notably the Sisters of the Religious Hospitallers of St. Joseph and the ladies of the Female Benevolent Society, some 1,400 immigrants died. Buried near the present general hospital, their remains were re-interred here in 1966.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

The next 3 plaques were sent in by Mary Crandall

PLAQUE #2


Location: Kingston City Hall (on the wall by the main entrance),
Ontario St., Kingston

KINGSTON CITY HALL

In 1843 the architect George Browne was commissioned to design a town hall in keeping with Kingston's status as a provincial capital. This building, one of the most ambitious examples of nineteenth century Canadian municipal architecture, was completed in 1844 at a cost of almost 20,000 pounds. It housed the municipal offices, the council chambers, and the town market, and also contained shops, other offices, and a saloon. A fire in 1865 destroyed part of the rear wing. The portico, removed in 1958, was rebuilt in 1966 by the City with the financial assistance of the federal government.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #3


Location: In park across from the City Hall, Ontario St.,Kingston

THE KING'S ROYAL REGIMENT OF NEW YORK

The largest Loyalist Corps in the Northern Department during the American Revolution, the King's Royal Regiment of New York, was raised on June 19, 1776 under the command of Sir John Johnson. Originally composed of one battalion with ten companies, it was authorized to add a second battalion in 1780. The regiment, known as the "Royal Yorkers", participated in the bitter war fought on the colonial frontier. It conducted raids against settlements in New York and was also employed in garrison duty. When active campaigning ceased in 1783, the regiment assumed various responsibilities, notably the establishment of a base here, in preparation for the settlement of the Loyalists. It was then fully disbanded, its officers and men settling near New Johnstown (Cornwall) and in the Cataraqui townships.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Citizenship and Culture

PLAQUE #4


Location: Alwington Place, Kingston

GOVERNMENT HOUSE

Alwington House, which stood on this site, was completed in 1832 by Charles W. Grant, fifth baron of Longueuil. It was enlarged in 1841 to serve as the vice-regal residence during the period when Kingston was the capital of the united Province of Canada. Three governors general, Lord Sydenham, Sir Charles Bagot, and Charles Metcalfe, occupied the house. When the capital was removed to Montreal in 1844, Alwington was returned to Baron Longueuil. It was subsequently occupied by the Reverend J. A. Allen, author of scientific works and father of the Canadian novelist Grant Allen. Badly damaged by fire in 1958, it was demolished the following year.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

The next 6 plaques were sent in by Mary Crandall


PLAQUE #5


Location: St. Paul's Anglican churchyard, Queen St., Kingston

ST. PAUL'S CHURCHYARD 1783

Formerly St. George's burial ground, this cemetery is the oldest in the Kingston district. Among the distinguished persons buried here are Molly Brant, Reverend John Stuart, Lieutenant Hugh Earl (Provincial Marine), Colonel Sir Richard Bonnycastle, and the Honourable Richard Cartwright.

Erected by the Kingston Historical Society, 1958

PLAQUE #6


Location: St. Paul's Anglican churchyard, Queen St., Kingston

MOLLY BRANT

Born about 1738, Molly Brant (Degonwadonti) was a member of a prominent Mohawk family. About 1759 she became the wife of Sir William Johnson, Superintendent of Indian Affairs in the Province of New York and a powerful figure in that colony. Well-educated and a persuasive speaker, Molly Brant wielded great influence among the Iroquois and was responsible for much of Johnson's success in dealing with them. Following the outbreak of the American Revolution she and her brother Joseph played a leading role in persuading the Confederacy to support Britain. In 1777 she fled to Canada and after the war, in recognition of her services, was granted a pension by the government. She settled in Cataraqui (Kingston) where she died in 1796.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Recreation

PLAQUE #7


Location: In front of St. George's Anglican Cathedral, Kingston

THE REV. JOHN STUART, 1740-1811

Born in Pennsylvania, Stuart was ordained in 1770 and sent to Fort Hunter NY as a missionary to the Mohawks. An ardent Loyalist, he came to Canada in 1781 where he was appointed chaplain to the 2nd Battalion King's Royal Regiment of New York. In 1785, having settled at Cataraqui (Kingston), he became the first resident Anglican clergyman in what is now Ontario. Stuart ministered to the white and Indian settlers of this area and visited as far west as Niagara and the Grand River. He was the first chaplain of the legislative council of Upper Canada and was responsible for the building of Kingston's earliest church, St. George's, in 1792.

Erected by the Ontario Archeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #8


Location: Beside the Kingston Public Library,
Johnson & Bagot Streets, Kingston

BISHOP ALEXANDER MACDONELL, 1762-1840

Patriot, colonizer and priest, he was born in the Highlands of Scotland. In 1804 he came to Canada as chaplain of the disbanded Glengarry Fencibles and later became Auxiliary Bishop of Quebec. As the first Bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Kingston, formed in 1826, he lived in this building and in 1831 was appointed to the Legislative Council of Upper Canada. In 1837 he founded Regiopolis College in Kingston and is buried in St. Mary's Cathedral in this city.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #9


Location: In front of the Frontenac County
Court House, Court St., Kingston

SIR OLIVER MOWAT, 1820-1903

Born in Kingston, Mowat studied law under John A. Macdonald. After moving to Toronto in 1840 he was elected a Liberal member of the legislature of the Province of Canada in 1857 and served as provincial secretary in 1858 and postmaster general 1863-4. He took part in the Quebec Conference of 1864 which led to Confederation in 1867. Mowat became Ontario's third prime minister in 1872 succeeding the Honourable Edward Blake, and retained that post for almost 24 years. Resigning in 1896, he accepted a seat in the Senate, and became minister of justice, 1896-97 in the cabinet of Sir Wilfrid Laurier. Mowat served as lieutenant-governor of Ontario from 1897 until his death.

Erected by the Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #10


Location: On Bagot St., near the corner
of Court St., Kingston

CHARLES SANGSTER 1822-1893

Sangster, one of the most significant Canadian poets of the pre-confederation period, was born at the naval yard, Point Frederick. In 1849 he edited the "Courier" at Amherstburg but the following year returned to Kingston to work for the "British Whig" and subsequently the "Daily News". In this community he did his best literary work including two books, "The St. Lawrence and Saguenay and Other Poems" (1856) and "Hesperus and Other Poems and Lyrics" (1860). Sangster's writings were imbued with a love for Canada, its scenery, its history and its traditions. Following employment with the Post Office Department at Ottawa, 1868-1886, he spent the remainder of his life in retirement here in Kingston.

Erected by the Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

The next 3 plaques were sent in by Steve Ostrom

PLAQUE #11


Location: This plaque is located in front of the house on Queens University Campus. The large well treed front yard faces Stuart Street, and the Kingston General Hospital buildings on the other side. There is narrow drive from the road leading to a circular parking area in front of the house.

SUMMERHILL 1839

This house, built in 1839 by Archdeacon George Okill Stuart, was known as "Okill's Folly." When the Province of Canada's first parliament met in the nearby hospital, the members were housed in Summerhill. Leased for government offices in 1842 - 44, it was later occupied by a school. In 1853 it was purchased by Queens College and served for several years as the university's only building. During most of its history, it has been used as the principal's residence.

Erected by the Ontario Archeaological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #12


Location: This plaque is about 1km south of Highway 7,
and about 15 km west of the intersection of Higway 38,
at the corner of Godfrey and Ferguson Roads

THE FRONTENAC ROAD

Surveyed in 1852-53 by Thomas Fraser Gibbs, Provincial Land Surveyor, this route was opened as part of a network of "colonization roads" planned by the government to encourage settlement in the southern region of the Precambrian Shield. Under the supervision of Warren Godfrey construction began in Hinchinbrooke Township and by 1862 41 miles of summer road had been built northward through Olden and Clarendon Townships to the intersection with the Mississippi Road. Seven years later a northern extension was completed to the Madawaska River. Although many free land grants offered along the road's course were taken up, poor soil and harsh climate discouraged large-scale settlement. Some portions of the road gradually fell into disuse, but most were incorporated into the county and township road systems.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Citzenship and Culture

PLAQUE #13


Location: This plaque is located in the village of Mountain Grove,
at the NE corner of Ferguson and Mountain Grove Roads.

1854 - IN MEMORY OF - 1865

THE PIONEERS OF OLDEN

ABBOTTDESHARMELEWISRUSHAW
ARMSTRONGDRAKELOVESANDERSON
ASPELLDREWLOYSTSCOTT
BABCOCKFLYNNMARSHALLSEE
BARRFRASERMcCHARLESSHULTZ
BENDERFREEMANMacDONALDSMITH
BERMISHGARRETTMcGILLSOLES
BEVERLYGODFREYMcGUINISSTINCHCOMBE
BEVISGIBBSMcKNIGHTSTONE
BINGHAMHANESMcPHERSONTHOMPSON
BOWERMANHARTLEYMILLERTROTTER
BROWNHASKINSMILLSTRYON
BURLEYHAWLEYMOSSMANTUCKER
BURKEJAICKPARKSUENS
CANNINGJOHNSONPARKERVANNESS
CAPLAMJOHNSTONPETERSVELEY
CONBOYKEATINGPRICEWAGER
COULTERKENNEDYQUINNWARREN
COXLAKERAYCROFTWATSON
CRAWFORDLAIDLEYRIELYWATERSTONE
CRONKLENNONROBINSONWISTERD
CROZIERYORK

The following 7 plaques were sent in by the McRae Family;
Tom, Cathy, Sarah, Daniel, Matthew, Alexander and Nick

PLAQUE #14


Location: on the grounds of the church, 268 Main Street East,
Barriefield, which is just east of downtown Kingston along Highway 2

ST. MARK'S CHURCH 1843

This church, a fine example of the early style of Gothic Revival architecture, was built with the aid of funds subscribed by the British Admiralty and by settlers at Barriefield, many of whom had been employees of the Royal Navy dockyard at Navy Bay. John Bennett Marks, a naval paymaster, donated the land for a site. The corner-stone was laid by Bishop John Strachan, July 10, 1843, and the church, designed by Alfred Brunel, was opened by Archdeacon George Okill Stuart, July 7, 1844. The first rector, the Rev. John Pope, served from 1844-1846. The church was consecrated by the Rt. Rev. John Travers Lewis, first Bishop of Ontario, September 25, 1862.

Erected by the Ontario Archeological
and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #15


Location: next to Ft. Sauve, on Point Frederick Drive on the grounds of the
Royal Military College, which is off Highway 2, east of downtown Kingston

THE ROYAL MILITARY COLLEGE OF CANADA

Following the withdrawal of British forces from Canada in 1870-71, the federal government recognized the need for an officer training college in Canada. In 1874, during the administration of the Hon. Alexander Mackenzie, enabling legislation was passed. Located on Point Frederick, the site of the former Royal Naval Dockyard, the new college opened on June 1, 1876, with 18 cadets under Lt.-Col. Edward O. Hewett, R.E. Named the Royal Military College of Canada in 1878, it offered academic and military training courses designed to prepare cadets for both military and civil careers. The college was reorganized in 1948 as a tri-service institution and, in 1959, it became the first military college in the British Commonwealth to achieve degree-granting status.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Recreation

PLAQUE #16


Location: at the Tower, on the grounds of the Royal Military College,
which is off Highway 2, east of downtown Kingston

POINT FREDERICK

A strategic location for the defence of the Loyalist settlement at Cataraqui (Kingston), this point was reserved in 1788 and named after Sir Frederick Haldimand, Governor of Quebec (1778-86). In 1790-91 a guardhouse and storehouse were built. By 1792 a dockyard was in operation and during the War of 1812 this vital naval base was fortified. On November 10, 1812, the Fort Frederick battery took part in repulsing an American naval squadron under Commodore Isaac Chauncey. This structure, one of four massive stone Martello towers built to strengthen Kingston's defenses, was erected in 1846-47 during the Oregon boundary crisis between the United States and Britain. In 1852 the dockyard was closed and in 1870 Fort Frederick was abandoned.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Recreation

PLAQUE #17


Location: at the building on Point Frederick Drive, on the grounds
of the Royal Military College, which is off Highway 2, east of downtown Kingston

THE STONE FRIGATE

Once part of a large and active naval dockyard, this substantial stone building was erected as a warehouse for naval stores. Although initially planned in 1816, it was not completed until four years later when the need for storage facilities to hold gear and rigging from British warships dismantled in compliance with the Rush-Bagot Agreement had become acute. After the Rebellion of 1837 the building briefly functioned as a barracks for the naval detachment charged with patrolling the lakes. It was then apparently used as a storehouse again. By 1876 the structure, now known as the Stone Frigate, had been refitted to house the newly-established Royal Military College of Canada, an institution it continues to serve.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Citizenship and Culture

PLAQUE #18


Location: north of the Stone Frigate building, on General Crerar Crescent,
on the grounds of the Royal Military College, which is off Highway 2,
east of downtown Kingston

THE RUSH-BAGOT AGREEMENT

A naval arms limitation agreement negotiated to demilitarize the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain after the War of 1812, this convention was concluded between the United States and Great Britain, represented respectively by Richard Rush and Charles Bagot, in 1817. Under its terms each country agreed to dismantle all armed vessels on the lakes with the exception of four retained for policing purposes and to construct no new warships. During the 19th century there were occasional infractions of the terms and during the Second World War they were somewhat modified, but the spirit of the convention has, in general, never been violated. Still technically in force, the Rush-Bagot Agreement has become a symbol of the long-standing, peaceful relations between Canada and the United States.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Citizenship and Culture

PLAQUE #19


Location: at the main gate of Fort Henry at the junction of H-ways 2 and 15

FORT HENRY

The first Fort Henry was built during the War of 1812 to protect the British dockyards in the Navy Bay. The present limestone citadel, constructed between 1832 and 1837, replaced the old fort as part of a larger plan for the defence of the recently completed Rideau Canal. Commissariat stores were built to join the advanced battery with the main fort in 1841-42. Fort Henry was garrisoned by British troops until 1871, when Canadian Gunnery Schools (forerunner of the Royal Canadian Artillery) took over. Abandoned by the military in 1891, the fort fell into disrepair. Restoration work began in 1936, and two years later Fort Henry opened as a historical museum.

Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Recreation

PLAQUE #20


Location: at the main gate of Fort Henry (next to the Fort Henry plaque).
Fort Henry is just east of downtown Kingston, at the junction of Highways 2 and 15

SIR RICHARD BONNYCASTLE, 1791-1847

As an officer in the Corps of Royal Engineers, Bonnycastle was trained in engineering, mapmaking, geology and painting. He served in Europe and Nova Scotia before coming to Upper Canada in 1826. The military surveys and related scientific work that he produced while posted at Niagara, Kingston and York contributed to the economic development of the province. Bonnycastle was recalled here in 1837 to supervise completion of the new Fort Henry. His masterful defence of Kingston during the Rebellions of 1837-38 earned him a knighthood. An interested observer of human nature, Sir Richard wrote four books detailing the social life, history and physical features of British North America.

Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Recreation

PLAQUE #21


Location: On the grounds of St. Stephen's Anglican Church,
just off County Road 10, Bedford Mills

BEDFORD MILLS

In 1831 Benjamin Tett (1798-1878), later an important merchant at Newboro, anticipating the completion of the Rideau Canal, acquired a sawmill here on Buttermilk Falls. Tett and various partners, including the prominent Chaffey brothers, extensively exploited local forests and through the Canal sent timber, lumber, and cord-wood to American and St. Lawrence River market centres. Active trade and settlement of the district led him to build a store and, in 1848, construct the stone grist-mill here. After 1872 the operations, including a shingle and planing-mill and canal shipping were continued by John Poole Tett and Benjamin Tett Jr. Depleted forests and the availability of western flour and feed seriously affected the mills and the total population declined. In 1916 the grist-mill ceased operation.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Recreation

PLAQUE #22


Location: At the Babcock farm, Holleford Rd., drive about 5 kms on the Holleford Rd.
and it is just about 100 yards or so before you have to either turn right or left on
Lower or Upper Holleford Rds., near Hartington

THE HOLLEFORD CRATER

A meteorite travelling 55,000 kilometres per hour smashed into the earth here eons ago, blasting a hole 244 metres deep and 2.5 kilometres wide. Aerial photographs revealed the crater in 1955, and since then scientists have pieced together much of its geological history. Analyses of drill samples suggest that the meteorite struck in the late Precambrian or early Cambrian period (between 450 and 650 million years ago). At first the depression filled with water becoming a circular lake. Later Palaeozoic seas swept in sediments filling the crater to its present depth of about 30 metres. The explosive impact of the meteorite (estimated to have been only 90 metres in diameter) is still evident in the hundreds of feet of shatterd rock that drilling has detected beneath the original crater floor.

Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Communication

PLAQUE #23


Location: Kingston, Ontario

KINGSTON DRY DOCK
LA CALE SÈCHE DE KINGSTON

Mississauga Point was for 150 years the site of major shipyards when Kingston was one of the important ports and ship building centres of the Great Lakes. The significance of this industry led the federal government to construct this dry dock in 1890. Initially operated by the Department of Public Works as a repair facility for lake vessels, it was enlarged and leased in 1910 to the Kingston Shipbuilding Company, the first of a series of private concerns which operated the shipyard until 1968. During the Second World War naval vessels, notably corvettes, were built in this shipyard.

Pendant 150 ans, à l'époque où Kingston était l'un des plus grands centres maritimes des Grands Lacs, Mississauga Point fut le site d'importants chantiers navals. C'est ce qui amena le gouvernement fédéral à y construire une cale sèche en 1890. Relevant d'abord du ministère des Travaux publics, celle-ci servit à al réparation des navires. En 1910, elle fut agrandie et louée à la Kingston Shipbuilding Company; ce fut la première d'une série d'implications de l'industrie privée, qui durèrent jusqu'en 1968. Lors de la seconde guerre mondiale, on y construisit des navires, notamment des corvettes.


Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #24


Location: On the east side of Barrie St. across from Stuart St., Kingston

THE KINGSTON OBSERVATORY

The first optical astronomical observatory in the province, the Kingston Observatory was established in 1855 after a solar eclipse aroused public interest in astronomical studies. Under the auspices of a committee of British military officers and "gentleman amateurs" a frame observatory was built here. It was transferred to the control of Queen's College in 1861 and within a year a new brick structure had been erected on the site. Staffed by Nathan Fellowes Dupuis, an able mathematician, the observatory, in addition to making conventional astronomical observations, produced barometric and thermal readings, fixed meridians for surveying and provided a time service. In 1881 it was moved to Queen's and today four cylindrical stones, former supports for the telescope, are all that remains of the old obervatory building.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Citizenship and Culture

PLAQUE #25


Location: On Hillcroft Dr. directly north of it's intersection with Union St., Kingston

HILLCROFT 1853

Built in 1853 by a mayor of Kingston, Francis Hill, this house, during the 1860's and 1870's, was the residence of Alexander Campbell (1822-1892). A member of the Legislative Council of the Province of Canada and delegate to the Quebec Conference which led to Confederation, he was a life-long political associate of the Dominion's first Prime Minister, Sir John A. MacDonald. Campbell held several cabinet posts after Confederation, was knighted in 1879 and from 1887 to 1892, was Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #26


Location: On the south side of Princess St. between Sir John A Macdonald Blvd. and Hillendale Ave., Kingston

HEATHFIELD

The house which stood near this site was constructed prior to 1841, and purchased in 1865 by Prof. James Williamson of Queen's University. His wife Margaret, was a sister of Sir John A. MacDonald, who became the first prime minister of the Dominion of Canada. Prof. Williamson leased the building to the Conservative leader, but retained a portion for his own use. MacDonald installed his unmarried sister, Louisa, in the house, and it served as his residence during his visits to Kingston 1865 - 1878. Later "Heathfield" was occupied by the Sisters of Providence of St. Vincent de Paul, and was demolished in 1964.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #27


Location: On the south side of Ontario St. between Gore St. and Lower Union St., Kingston

LOYALIST LANDING AT CATARACOUI 1784

Following the end of the American Revolution in 1783, Frederick Haldimand, Governor of Quebec, approved the resettlement of loyalist refugees in what is now southern Ontario. Favourable reports on the Cataracoui area led to its occupation by British forces in the spring of 1783 and to the commencement of surveys the following October. In June 1784 a party of Associated Loyalists from New York State under the command of Captain Michael Grass, part of a loyalist flotilla travelling from Montreal, established a camp here on Mississauga Point. Grass later recalled: "I Led the loyal band, I pointed out to them the site of their future metropolis and gained for persecuted principles a sanctuary, for myself and followers a home".

Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Communications

PLAQUE #28


Location: On the south side of Ontario St. between Brock St.
and Clarence St., Kingston

LOUIS DE BUADE, COMTE DE FRONTENAC
ET DE PALLUAU 1622 - 1698

One of the most influential and controversial figures in Canadian history, Frontenac was born at St-Germain-en-Laye, France. As a member of the noblesse d'épée he was able in 1672 to secure the appointment as Governor-General of New France. Devoted largely because of self-interest to promoting the colony's territorial expansion, Frontenac established a series of fortified fur-trading posts extending into the interior of North America, the first of which, Fort Frontenac, was constructed near here in 1673. He quarreled incessantly with other officials, however, and as a result was recalled in 1682. Reappointed seven years later, Frontenac successfully defended New France from attacks by the Iroquois and English and continued, until his death in Quebec, to expand the western fur trade.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Citizenship and Culture

PLAQUE #29


Location: On the SE corner of Sydenham St. and Brock St., Kingston

REGIOPOLIS COLLEGE

Regiopolis College, incorporated March 4, 1837, by an Act of the legislature of Upper Canada, opened in the central portion of this building. Its corner-stone was laid by the school's founder, Bishop Alexander Macdonell, on June 11, 1839. In 1866 the College was given full degree-granting powers, although these were rarely used. Financial difficulties forced its closing in 1869. In 1892 the building was acquired by the Religious Hospitallers of St. Joseph who opened here the Hôtel Dieu Hospital. The school reopened on King Street in 1896 and, in 1915, moved to the northern part of the city. In 1931 the diocesan clergy transferred the College to the Jesuit Order.

Erected by the Archaeological and Historic Sites Board,
Department of Public Records and Archives of Ontario

PLAQUE #30


Location: On the south side of Bagot St. just west of West St., Kingston

MILITIA GARRISON 1837 - 38

Commemorating the services of the first permanent Militia Garrison of Kingston, assembled by Lieutenant-Colonel R.H. Bonnycastle to defend this city during the Upper Canadian Rebellion. The mobilization saved Kingston from invasion since the regular forces had been sent to Lower Canada. The troops used this area as their drill ground.

 Queen's Marine Artillery               2nd and 3rd Prince Edward
 Perth Artillery                        1st and 2nd Addington
 Frontenac Light Dragoons               2nd Lennox
 1st and 2nd Addington Light Dragoons   Belleville Rifles
 1st Hastings Light Dragoons            Independent Companies
 1st and 2nd Fontenac                   Tyendinaga Mohawks

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #31


Location: Just off the entrance road to the Providence Continuing Care Centre
on King St. W., across from Portsmouth Avenue, Kingston

"ROCKWOOD" 1842

Rockwood was built in 1842 as a country villa for John Solomon Cartwright (1804-1845). Designed by George Browne, architect of the Kingston City Hall, in a monumental phase of the Regency style, it is a stone structure covered with stucco but lined to suggest ashlar masonry. Cartwright began to practise law in Kingston in 1830 and in 1831, became president of the Commercial Bank of the Midland District. He was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada in 1836 and of Canada in 1841. The government acquired this property in 1856 as site for a "Criminal Lunatic Asylum". With another building erected in 1859, it became the nucleus of the present psychiatric hospital.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #32


Location: On the west side of Clarence St. between Wellington St.
and King St., Kingston

RENÉ-AMABLE BOUCHER 1735 -1812

Boucher was born at Fort Frontenac (Kingston) where his father, an officer with the French colonial regular troops, was stationed. René-Amable also chose a military career and served in the Seven Years War with the French defenders of Canada. During the American Revolution, he was captain of a volunteer company of French Canadian militia and fought with the British under General John Burgoyne. In Quebec, and later in Lower Canada, Boucher sat on the legislative council, he also served as a magaistrate of the Mecklenberg (later Midland) District of Upper Canada. From 1782, until his death he devoted much time and energy to managing and developing his seigneury of Boucherville, a community of more than 2,000 inhabitants located near Montreal.

Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Communications

PLAQUE #33


Location: On the SW corner of West St. and Bagot St., Kingston

RENE-ROBERT CAVELIER
DE LA SALLE AT CATARACOUI

Early in his celebrated career the explorer La Salle played a principal role in the expansion of the French fur trade into the Lake Ontario region. In 1673 he arranged a meeting between Governor-General Frontenac, who wanted to shift the centre of the fur trade away from Montreal, and representatives of the Iroquois at Cataracoui, the site of present day Kingston. Placed in command of Fort Frontenac, the post the governor ordered built here, La Salle soon gained control over trade in the area by acquiring ownership of the establishment as a seigneurial grant. Using the fort as a base, he then undertook expeditions to the west and southwest in an attempt to expand his Cataracoui operation into a vast fur-trading empire.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Citizenship and Culture

PLAQUE #34


Location: On the south side of Kingston Mills Road (Road 21) just west
of the bridge over the Rideau Canal, Kingston

RIDEAU CANAL 1826 - 1832

Financed by the British government on the Duke of Wellington's advice, it was built to provide a secure military route between Upper and Lower Canada. Work was supervised by military engineers commanded by Lieut. Colonel John By whose technical ability and perseverance overcame many obstacles. Many of his Irish emigrant labourers died of a virulent fever. Traversing 126 miles of largely unsettled country between Kingston and Bytown (now Ottawa), and including 47 locks, the canal was opened May 24, 1832.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #35

Location: The building is now the Museum of Health Care located on the grounds
of Kingston General Hospital, Kingston

ANN BAILLIE BUILDING
One of the earliest nurses' residences in Canada, this stately building symbolizes the development and recognition of nursing as a profession. The home was completed in 1904 for students at the Kingston General Hospital's nursing school, who cared for patients in the wards and operating rooms as part of their training. The building was later named in honour of Ann Baillie, a graduate of the school and its superintendent from 1924 to 1942. Here as elsewhere, a place of their own helped nurses shape a professional role indispensable to health care within the hospital and in the community.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #36

Location: On the east side of Centre St. between Edgehill St. and King St. W., Kingston

BELLEVUE
Built about 1840, Bellevue House is one of the most interesting examples surviving in Canada of Italian Villa architecture, a style that was new in the country and novel in Kingston. This type of residence subsequently became popular in Canada. John A. Macdonald, later first Prime Minister of Canada, lived here with his family from August, 1848, to September, 1849. At the time the rising young lawyer was Member for Kingston in the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #37

Location: In front of the Stuart Street entrance to the Kingston General Hospital, Kingston

CHARLES EDWARD POULETT THOMSON
BARON SYDENHAM
1799-1841
Thomson, a British businessman and politician, was sent to North America to implement the Union of the Canadas. Having won assent for the union in 1840, he was elevated to the peerage and served as the new province's Governor-General until his untimely death in Kingston. In establishing a system based on harmony between legislative and executive branches, yet one which fell short of responsible government, he succeeded in bringing together moderates in an administration designed to aid in recovery from the recent political, social and economic troubles that culminated in the Rebellions of 1837-38.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #38

Location: On a wall to the left of the entrance gate at Tete du Pont Barracks at
1 Ontario Street, east of Barrack Street, Kingston

THE CRAWFORD PURCHASE
In October 1783, at Carleton Island near here, Captain William Redford Crawford of the King's Royal Regiment of New York met with the local Mississauga Indians led by the elderly Mynass. Crawford, acting for the British government, purchased from the Mississaugas for some clothing, ammunition and coloured cloth a large tract of land east of the Bay of Quinte. The land was subsequently settled by United Empire Loyalists and Britain's Indian allies who had been forced to leave their homes in the new United States.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #39

Location: Mounted on the wall of the left staircase between the 2nd and 3rd floors of
Kingston City Hall on Ontario Street at Brock Street, Kingston

DR. JENNY TROUT (1841-1921)
In 1875 Jenny Trout became the first woman licensed to practice medicine in Canada. Made famous by the event, Dr. Trout was a role model for women. She encouraged them through public lectures, private financial support, tutoring and counselling to follow her profession. The prejudice Dr. Trout faced in obtaining her own degree convinced her to advocate a separate medical college for women. Funded in part by Dr. Trout, the Kingston Women's Medical College, opened here in 1883, provided a segregated environment for study, and helped women overcome restrictions imposed by a male profession.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #40

Location: In a park on the north side of King St. E. just west of West St., Kingston

EARLY LAND SURVEY IN ONTARIO
In September 1783, Deputy Surveyor-General John Collins was despatched to Cataraqui by Governor Haldimand to lay out townships for loyalist settlers. The necessary land was purchased from Mississauga Indians, and on 27 October the first survey marker was planted. By the year's end the front concessions of four townships, stretching from Cataraqui to the Bay of Quinte, had been surveyed. A fifth was laid out the following summer. Collins thus completed the first major survey made under civil authority in what is now Ontario.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #41

Location: On the northeast corner of Brock St. and Clergy St., Kingston

ELIZABETH COTTAGE
Elizabeth Cottage is a charming example of the Gothic Revival style. Reputedly built in the 1840s with a later addition, it is the work of the Kingston architect, Edward Horsey, and originally served as his residence. The lively design features steeply pointed gables, projecting bays, and oriel windows which accentuate the play of light and shadow on the smooth stucco walls. Applied Gothic decorative details such as crockets, finials, and drip moldings heighten the picturesque effect. The Gothic Revival was particularly fashionable for residences in Ontario in the mid-19th century.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #42

Location: At 310 King Street East between Brock and Clarence Streets, Kingston

THE FIRST MEETING OF THE
EXECUTIVE COUNCIL OF UPPER CANADA
Because of the Loyalist influx into the western part of Quebec after the American Revolution, the province was divided into Upper and Lower Canada (now Ontario and Quebec). The Constitutional Act of 1791 provided for representative government in each of the new provinces. On July 8, 1792, John Graves Simcoe, Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, met his Executive Council in St. George's Church which one occupied this site. In the following three weeks the Council divided the province into counties and allocated representation to the Assembly that was to meet at Newark (later Niagara-on-the-Lake) in September.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #43

Location: On the right side entrance gate at Tete du Pont Barracks
at 1 Ontario Street, east of Barrack Street, Kingston

FORT FRONTENAC
Here stood Fort Cataraqui or Frontenac built by Count de Frontenac in July, 1673, and rebuilt by La Salle in 1675. For many years the key to the West, the base of La Salle's explorations and a French outpost against the Iroquois and English. Abandoned 1689, rebuilt 1696, captured by British troops under Colonel John Bradstreet, 27th August, 1758.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #44

Location: At the entrance gate to the fort, Kingston

FORT HENRY
An earlier fort was built here on Point Henry during the War of 1812 primarily to defend the nearby naval dockyard. When the Rideau Canal was built as part of a military route connecting Kingston with Montreal, the strategic importance of this site increased. The old fort was therefore replaced by the present structure of stronger and more advanced design which was completed in 1836 at a cost of over £70,000. Garrisoned by units of the British and then the Canadian Army until 1890, the fort never saw action, although it was used as a prison for rebels captured during the Rebellions of 1837-38.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #45

Location: On the north side of Court Street between Barrie and West Streets, Kingston

FRONTENAC COUNTY
COURT HOUSE
This grand Neo-classical building has served the courts of Frontenac County since its opening in 1858. Designed by the Dorset-born architect, Edward Horsey, it is superbly sited on land originally acquired in 1840 for a house of parliament, at a time when Kingston was one of several possible sites for the capital of Canada. Constructed of stone quarried on site, it features many of the traditional exterior elements of large-scale mid-19th century court houses: the use of classical detailing, the balanced three-part composition of centre pavilion and side wings, and a bold portico and dome.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #46

Location: At City Hall on Ontario St. between Brock and Market Streets, Kingston

KINGSTON CITY HALL
In 1843 the architect George Browne was commissioned to design a town hall in keeping with Kingston's status as a provincial capital. This building, one of the most ambitious examples of nineteenth century Canadian municipal architecture, was completed in 1844 at a cost of almost £20,000. It housed the municipal offices, the council chambers, and the town market, and also contained shops, other offices, and a saloon. A fire in 1865 destroyed part of the rear wing. The portico, removed in 1958, was rebuilt in 1966 by the City with the financial assistance of the federal government.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #47

Location: On the northwest corner of King St. E. and Clarence St., Kingston

KINGSTON CUSTOM HOUSE
Designed by the Montreal architectural firm of Hopkins, Lawford and Nelson, the Kingston Custom House was built in 1856-59 for the government of the united Canadas. The symmetrical composition of the two-storey ashlar building, surmounted by a restrained cornice and parapet, draws on the British classical tradition. The orderly design is achieved through repeated use of semi-circular forms for doors and windows. The Custom House and the nearby Post Office are fine examples of the architectural quality of mid-nineteenth century administrative buildings.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #48

Location: On the south side of Ontario St. between Gore and Lower Union Streets, Kingston

KINGSTON DRY DOCK
Mississauga Point was for over 150 years the site of major shipyards when Kingston was one of the important ports and ship building centres on the Great Lakes. The significance of this industry led the federal government to construct this dry dock in 1890. Initially operated by the Department of Public Works as a repair facility for lake vessels, it was enlarged and leased in 1910 to the Kingston Shipbuilding Company, the first of a series of private concerns which operated the shipyard until 1968. During the Second World War naval vessels, notably corvettes, were built in this shipyard.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #49

Location: On the south side of Ontario St. between Brock and Clarence Sts., Kingston

KINGSTON FORTIFICATIONS
The site of the Royal Naval Dockyard during the War of 1812, Kingston assumed even greater strategic importance as the southern terminus of the Rideau Canal, which was built between 1826 and 1832. An extensive fortification plan of redoubts, towers, and batteries was developed to protect the dockyard and entrance to the canal, but only Fort Henry was actually built. In response to the Oregon Crisis with the United States in 1845-1846, four Martello towers and the Market Battery, which stood on this site, were constructed between 1846 and 1848.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #50

Location: In front of the Stuart St. entrance to the Kingston General Hospital, Kingston

KINGSTON GENERAL HOSPITAL
An enduring witness to the evolution of public health care, Kingston General is one of Canada's oldest functioning hospitals. Most of its early buildings have survived, notably the Main Building and the Watkins Wing which date to a time when hospitals were places for the care of the poor. Expansion in the late-19th and early-20th centuries marked the transformation of this charitable hospital into a centre of scientific medicine. The Nickle Wing for patients with infectious diseases, the Doran Building for the care of women and children, and the Fenwick Operating Theatre all date to the 1890s. They show the gradual shift away from treatment in the home in favour of the hospital, which offered new surgical techniques and an antiseptic environment. The new nurses home, completed in 1904, acknowledged the advance of nursing as a profession critical to the institution. Opened in 1914, the Empire Wing with its private and semi-private rooms demonstrates the hospitals acceptance by the well-to-do. These early buildings form an integral part of a larger hospital complex that continues to reflect new approaches to medical treatment.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #51

Location: In front of the Stone Frigate on the grounds of the
Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston

KINGSTON NAVY YARD
The Navy Yard established in 1789 as a trans-shipment point for the Great Lakes and as the Provincial Marine's Lake Ontario base was administered by the admiralty after 1813. During the War of 1812 Commodore James Yeo, R. N. commanded a considerable squadron built in these yards, including the 112-gun St. LAWRENCE. This base posed a constant threat to the Americans, who never felt strong enough to risk a direct attack. The Rush-Bagot agreement of 1817, which limited armaments on the lakes, brought about a decline in activity, and by mid-century the yards were closed.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #52

Location: On King Street West at the foot of Sir John A. Macdonald Blvd., Kingston

KINGSTON PENITENTIARY
Opened on 1 June 1835, Kingston Penitentiary is Canada's oldest reformatory prison. Its layout - an imposing front gate leading to a cross-shaped cellblock, with workshops to the rear - was the model for other federal prisons for more than a century. Its main structures constitute an impressive grouping of inmate-built 19th-century classical architecture in local stone. Kingston Penitentiary represented a significant departure from the way society had dealt with its criminals. Previously, jails were used primarily as places to hold convicts awaiting execution, banishment or public humiliation. The penitentiary imposed a severe regime designed to reform the inmate through reflection, hard work and the fear of punishment. "KP" employed the congregate system first developed at Auburn, New York, where inmates lived in small cells but work together from dawn to dusk, all under a rigidly enforced rule of silence. Kingston Penitentiary stands as a powerful symbol of this country's commitment to the maintenance of law and order.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #53

Location: On the southwest corner of Clarence and Wellington Streets, Kingston

KINGSTON POST OFFICE
In 1856-59 the government of the united Canadas erected the Kingston Post Office. Designed by the Montreal architectural firm of Hopkins, Lawford and Nelson, this limestone building shows the influence of the British classical style, particularly as it derived from Italian Renaissance palace architecture. The pronounced rustication of the ground storey contrasts with the refined details of the upper level to create a balanced, harmonious composition. Planned in conjunction with the nearby Custom House, the Post Office contributes to the dignified quality of this nineteenth century streetscape.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #54

Location: In front of the Stuart St. entrance to the Kingston General Hospital, Kingston

LEGISLATURE OF THE
PROVINCE OF CANADA
1841-1844
Following the union of Upper and Lower Canada in 1841, Kingston was chosen as the capital of the United Province. The new municipal hospital was hurriedly modified to provide temporary legislative chambers and here the three sessions of the first Parliament were held between June 1841 and December 1843. Political pressures and inadequate accommodations led to the decision in 1843 to transfer the seat of Government to Montreal, where the second Parliament met for the first time in November 1844.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #55

Location: Adjacent to the front door of Rideaucrest Home at
175 Rideau Street near Raglan Road, Kingston

MARY (MOLLY) BRANT
(TEKONWATONTI)
(ca. 1736-1796)
A Mohawk woman of great diplomatic skill, Molly Brant exerted an extraordinary influence on the powerful Iroquois Confederacy. During the American Revolutionary War, she passed valuable information to British troops and in 1777 was forced by the rebels to flee her homeland in the colony of New York. Living at military posts, she emerged as a persuasive speaker, exhorting the Iroquois to maintain their traditional alliance with the British Crown. After the war, this remarkable Loyalist settled near here. Molly Brant's tireless efforts helped preserve Canada from American conquest.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #56

Location: In front of the tower on King St. W. across from Barrie Street, Kingston

MURNEY MARTELLO TOWER
This tower was constructed in 1846 as a part of the new naval defences authorized for Kingston Harbour by the Imperial government during the Oregon Crisis of 1845-46. It was one of the last British works of defence commenced in the Canadian interior and one of the most sophisticated of the Martello Towers built in British North America. Although in regular use as a barracks after 1849 it was not fully armed until 1862, when it had already become obsolete because of rapid advance in offensive military technology.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #57

Location: On the left stone gate post at the Valour Drive entrance to
the Royal Military College grounds, Kingston

POINT FREDERICK BUILDINGS
This peninsula, headquarters of the Provincial Marine (c.1790-1813), and of the Royal Navy (1813-1853), was the major British naval base on Lake Ontario during the War of 1812. Buildings surviving from this period include the Naval Hospital, the Guard House complex, and the Stone Frigate. On the southern part of the peninsula stands Fort Frederick, erected in 1812-13 but completely rebuilt in 1846. In 1875 the Point was chosen as the site of the Royal Military College of Canada which admitted its first class in June 1876.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #58

Location: At the entrance to Fort Henry at the turn off from Road 2, Kingston

PRO PATRIA 1812-1814
In memory of the officers and seamen of the Royal Navy and Provincial Marine, and of the officers and soldiers of the Royal Marines, Royal Newfoundland, King's (8th) and 100th Regiments, who served on Lake Ontario in defence of Canada in 1812-1814.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #59

Location: On the east side of University Avenue south of Union Street between
Ontario Hall and Grant Hall, Kingston

QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY
Queen's University was the earliest degree-granting liberal arts college established in the United Province of Canada, holding its first classes in March of 1842. Established by the Presbyterian Church, it evolved into a national institution under George Munro Grant, who was principal from 1877 to 1902. By the 20th century Queen's had emerged as one of Canada's major universities with a reputation for scholarship and social purpose. Many of the nation's notable political figures and public servants have been Queen's graduates.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #60

Location: Attached to the back of the building at 421 Union Street West
behind a shrub row, Kingston

ROSELAWN
Built by architect William Coverdale for David John Smith in 1841, Roselawn stands as a reminder of the days when affluent Kingstonians erected magnificent country homes just beyond the city. Its proportions, roof pediments and arched openings reflect the then popular Classic Revival style. From 1851 to 1868 it was the residence of Sir Henry Smith, Solicitor General for Upper Canada and later Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada. In 1970 Roselawn was acquired by Queen's University, which had originally sold the land to Smith in 1841.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #61

Location: In front of the Stuart St. entrance to the Kingston General Hospital, Kingston

SIR CHARLES BAGOT
1781-1843
Born in Staffordshire, Bagot commenced a distinguished career in the diplomatic service of Great Britain in 1807. As ambassador to the United States he signed the important Rush-Bagot Convention of 1818 limiting naval armaments on the Great Lakes. In 1842 he assumed the office of Governor General of Canada. Although the principle of responsible government had not yet been conceded, an executive council, which he believed to have the confidence of the assembly, was chosen under his administration.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #62

Location: In a breezeway between the Girouard and Sawyer Buildings
on the Royal Military College campus, Kingston

SIR EDOUARD PERCY
CRANWILL GIROUARD
1867-1932
Born in Montréal, Girouard was educated at Royal Military College, Kingston, commissioned in the Royal Engineers in 1888, and appointed to the Royal Arsenal Railways at Woolwich. Charged in 1896 with construction of the Wadi Halfa - Khartoum Railway, he was later director of railways in South Africa and as high commissioner in Northern Nigeria superintended the building of a line to Kano. Governor of Northern Nigeria (1908-9), of East Africa (1909-12), and director general of munitions supply in the British government (1915-16), he also wrote several books on the strategic importance of railways.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #63

Location: On the right stone gate post at the Valour Drive entrance
to the Royal Military College grounds, Kingston

SIR JAMES LUCAS YEO
1782-1818
Born in Southampton, England, Yeo entered the British Navy, served throughout the Napoleonic Wars and won rapid promotion by his ability. In 1813, already a Commodore, he came to Canada to command British forces on the Great Lakes. Yeo successfully blockaded the American fleet in Sackett's Harbour for some months and subsequently commanded the naval forces at the capture of Oswego in 1814. Returning to England after the war he was posted to the West African Coast and died at sea while returning from that tour of duty.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #64

Location: In a park on the northwest corner of King St. E. and West St., Kingston

SIR JOHN ALEXANDER MACDONALD
1815-1891
First elected from Kingston to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada in 1844, he was for forty-seven years a leading figure in the public life of his country. One of the Fathers of Confederation, he became the first prime minister of Canada and held the office 1867-73; 1878-91. Under his leadership the new Dominion was extended from sea to sea by incorporation of the territories of the Hudson's Bay Company, British Columbia and Prince Edward Island, and linked together by construction of the Intercolonial and Canadian Pacific Railways.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #65

Location: Mounted on the wall of Memorial Hall on the 2nd floor of Kingston City Hall
on Ontario Street at Brock Street, Kingston

SIR RICHARD CARTWRIGHT
1835-1912
Grandson of a prominent Loyalist merchant, Richard John Cartwright was born in Kingston, Upper Canada, and became a successful businessman. A Conservative in the Legislative Assembly of Canada (1863-67), he was later a Liberal member of the House of Commons for thirty-seven years (1867-1904), until appointed to the Senate. He served as Minister of Finance in the Mackenzie cabinet (1873-78) and under Laurier as Minister of Trade and Commerce (1896-1904). A renowned orator and free trader, he was the architect of the Liberal election policy of 1891 favouring unrestricted reciprocity with the United States. He died at Kingston.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #66

Location: At the school at 5 Clergy Street East, Kingston

SYDENHAM PUBLIC SCHOOL
This building, opened in 1853 as the Kingston County Grammar School, replaced the earlier Midland Grammar School, a log and frame structure located at King and Gore streets. The new building consisted of two classrooms and accommodated over 100 students on each storey. Its elegant symmetrical exterior, dressed stonework and expansive .8 ha site testified to the importance of education to the local community. In 1876, the school was severely damaged by fire and subsequently reconstructed and enlarged through the addition of a rear wing. After the Kingston Collegiate Institute opened on Frontenac Street during the 1890s, Kingston County Grammar School became a primary school. It was named for Lord Sydenham (1799-1841), Governor General of British North America in 1839. The structure was expanded again in 1952. The successful operation and survival of this school is a testament to its architectural and historical significance to Kingston and to the development of public education in Upper Canada.

Ontario Heritage Trust, an agency of the Government of Ontario

PLAQUE #67

Location: On Wolfe Island, in Marysville at Main and Division Streets

THE WOLFE ISLAND TOWNSHIP HALL
This township hall, erected in 1859, survives as a symbol of the development of self-government in rural Ontario. Following the passage of the Municipal Act in 1849, many small communities erected simple, one-room structures as places of assembly for newly formed municipal councils and for the community at large. Edward Horsey, a noted Kingston architect, was chosen to design this hall. Its fine, hammer-dressed limestone construction and handsome Italianate detailing make it an unusually sophisticated example of its type.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

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